Healthcare is an essential element of the social sphere and aims to preserve and strengthen the health of the population through preventive, curative, and other types of activities of medical institutions. The fundamental role of healthcare as an integral condition of society is recognized in the legislative acts of all civilized countries. Moreover, it is considered an important factor in the national security of the state as a system of public and state socio-economic measures that ensure a high level of protection and improvement of public health. Effective state policy contributes to the implementation of the main tasks of healthcare. Different health systems have been formed in other countries, and their typology is mainly determined by the political and socio-economic structure of states. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is represented as the federal executive body. Consequently, the state has a direct influence on decision-making and agency services.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Structure
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), through 27 divisions, implements and controls 330 social and health programs, particularly, such as Medicare. The organizational structure of medical care in the United States is characterized by a decentralized health care management system with a division of powers between the federal center and the states. (Chukmaitov et al., 2019). Having relative independence, the U.S. health policy has a strong impact on the economic sphere of society. It provides for comprehensive control by the authorities of the entire medical care system in the country, despite the diversity of its forms and methods.
The HHS and Country’s Policy
In common, HHS has a relatively simple managerial position in state regulation of the health care policy, but its abilities to organize and implement strategic and tactical issues cannot be undervalued (Chukmaitov et al., 2019). The value of HHS is very meaningful in estimating and predicting the health of the population and in planning and controlling the activities of state medical institutions of inpatient type. Moreover, it plays an important role in promoting investigation work in the field of medicine through the system of the National Institutes of Health and in strategic planning of joint activities with other governmental authorities related to healthcare.
The Initiative Priority
The Ministry of Health considers its main goal to be the fulfillment of tasks to strengthen and protect the health and well-being of all Americans. They achieve this mission by providing effective medical and social services. Medicare is a well-known state insurance program for people over 65 years old, introduced in 1967 (Patel et al., 2019). Until that time, the majority (more than 50%) of elderly residents of the United States did not receive adequate amount of medical services (Patel et al., 2019). In accordance with this program, insurance is provided to all Americans over the age of 65 and those who are approaching this age and have serious health conditions. Thus, currently, more than 97% of the elderly and 90% of people with severe kidney disease, and 3.6 million disabled people are insured under this program. (Patel et al., 2019). The sources of financing are payroll tax, progressive income tax, and corporate income tax. Consequently, the key objectives of the agency are the provision of medical services, support of health programs, and protection of the population from bioterrorism.
Another federal Medicaid program introduced simultaneously with Medicare is designed to provide medical assistance to low-income citizens with incomes below the poverty level and applies to family members with children, pregnant women, elderly people, the blind, the disabled, as well as people suffering from certain diseases (tuberculosis, some forms of cancer). Separately, there is a Tricare program for public Service veterans and their families. Since 1982, all fifty states have joined Medicaid. In 1997, the federal government introduced a state insurance program for children from families whose income is higher than the allowable for participation in Medicaid but who are still unable to provide them with insurance (Campos-Castillo et al., 2017). The condition for the participation of the poor in Medicaid is the gross income of the applicant in the range from 100 to 250% of the poverty level (Campos-Castillo et al., 2017). The poverty threshold varies markedly in different states and is adjusted annually. (Patel et al., 2019). Both the federal and state governments fund the Medicaid program. The federal government pays its share of Medicaid costs from the general tax proceeds, which is approximately half of all expenses because the government of each state pays the rest. The Medicare and Medicaid programs belong to a federal agency that is regulated by the state. Hence they refer to the health law.
The Influence of Government on HHR
Since this agency carries out its activities at the federal level, it must take into account the influence of state power on its activities. Moreover, the legislative, executive and judicial authorities have a direct impact on healthcare. For example, legislation enshrines a person’s right to medical care. The role of healthcare as a necessary condition of society’s life is recognized in the legislative acts of all civilized countries. It is considered an important factor in the national security of the country. The state’s activities in the field of healthcare have a multifaceted impact on American society (Chukmaitov, 2019). The legislatures and state governors determine the specific categories of low-income citizens and the conditions under which medical benefits are provided, however, within the framework of general federal regulations.
The Influence of the Branches of Government
The state owns and manages such medical institutions as HHR and regulates the time of medical care, making it possible to optimize overall healthcare costs. Thus, the executive and judicial authorities also have an influence on the HHS (Hampson et al., 2019). There are many cases of medical errors or violations of the law by medical professionals; therefore, it is important to regulate the relationship between the judiciary and healthcare (Chukmaitov, 2019). The executive power influences the organizational activity of healthcare. Since HHS is a federal agency, the decisions it takes must be coordinated with the state and are influenced by the executive, legislative and judicial authorities.
Medicine and Policy
What is important, medical state organizations should take into account the current situation in the country and especially make decisions in connection with today’s situation in the world. That is why during the pandemic, medical organizations had to take into account the state of the country and provide everything necessary for the protection and safety of citizens. Federal budget expenditures that ensure the preparedness of the healthcare system for emergencies should also be taken into account when making important decisions (Campos-Castillo et al., 2017). The coordination of public health policy in the United States is a very complex process. Having reliable and as complete information as possible during the ongoing debates here is extremely important. That is why a health policy analyst needs to consider policy problems and health economics to make decisions.
In conclusion, U.S. healthcare is one of the largest branches of the American economy, in which huge resources are concentrated. The medical industry accounts for one-seventh of the entire national economy, which employs over 10 million people. The United States holds a leading place in the capitalist world regarding the scale of healthcare resources. Although commercial medicine has been primarily developed here, the state plays a significant role in organizing measures to protect the population’s health.
Chukmaitov, A. S., Harless, D. W., Bazzoli, G. J., & Deng, Y. (2019). Factors associated with hospital participation in Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Accountable Care Organization programs. Health care management review, 44(2), 104. Web.
Campos-Castillo, C., Woodson, B. W., Theiss-Morse, E., Sacks, T., Fleig-Palmer, M. M., & Peek, M. E. (2017). Examining the relationship between interpersonal and institutional trust in political and health care contexts. Interdisciplinary perspectives on trust. 99-115. Springer, Cham. Web.
Hampson, G., Towse, A., Dreitlein, W. B., Henshall, C., & Pearson, S. D. (2018). Real-world evidence for coverage decisions: opportunities and challenges. Journal of comparative effectiveness research, 7(12), 1133-1143. Web.
Patel, S., Boehler, A., Uehlecke, N. (2019). A vision for advancing American kidney health: View from the US Department of Health and Human Services. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 14(12), 1789-1791. Web.