The subject of study that centers on the human skills that supervisors and managers need to be efficient is known as organizational behavior. Organizational behavior is the systematic and technological analysis of human beings, groups, and organizations; its intended and expected outcome is to mentally perceive an idea or situation, predict, and develop the performance of employees and eventually, the organizations in which they work. It uses an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies to various circumstances in explaining the specific set of phenomena and research from psychology and sociology, and managerial theory which enables employers to understand how to use this knowledge to ameliorate the efficiency of an organization (Rizzo, Tosi, & Mero, 2000, p.3).
Organizational efficiency is mostly observed by the quality of the employees and how the organization trains them. As a result, it is normal that successful organizations try to employ and maintain skillful employees and organize training for them with professional development opportunities. However, abilities, skills, personality, and organizational backup alone might not contribute to individual job performance that adds to general organizational effectiveness. Some employees may choose not to perform even when they possess the right attribute that must be met or complied with thereby making them efficient in every organization.
Definition of Organizational Behaviour
Organizational behavior can be defined as the study of the human mode of performance in an organization. It is the regular analysis of individual and group courses of action and characteristics. The purpose of organizational behavior is to understand, predict, and enhance the performance of organizations and individuals and at the same time be concerned with the supervision of people.
In line with this, it is only in recent times that organizational behavior (OB) has been regarded as a separate field of study. After the late 1950s, an anxious feeling about managing individuals, components were established in writings on technological management, organizational theory, engineering science of mental life, and the human relations ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem or situation. Additionally, many hypothetical and experimental aspects of the essential social science training to improve strength or self-control were drawn on to become incorporated into the branch of knowledge which is later known as organizational behavior, a body of knowledge, still imperfect and developing (Rizzo, Tosi, & Mero, 2000, p.26).
What motivates people?
The motivation theories that cover the content of what motivates people are classified under a subsuming principle is known as content theories or static-content theories.
Although the static-content theories present the fundamental understanding of what motivates people, however, they are not enough to describe the multifaceted nature of human motivation, as people react in a different way to their needs. Factors excluding discontented needs also control motivation, and different process theories were formulated to describe the operation of motivation (Thompson, 2005, p.45).
Three key components and relationships in the expectancy theory of motivation
Expectancy theory, which is also known as VIE theory, accept without verification or proof that motivation is a function of three components which are: 1) motivation of an employee, with compensation which must be valued by the person (valence); 2) the employees must accept that higher performance will result in greater rewards (instrumentality); and 3) that extra effort will contribute to higher performance (expectancy) (Victor, 1964).
How you would apply the expectancy theory of motivation in an organization
To improve performance in an organization where employees notice that high performance may not be gained with effort even after hours of series of action which advances the principle of a particular end because of lack of skills or self-efficacy, even if they desire promotion, the person might not feel motivated to attain a goal.
Providing suitable training, clarifying expectations, and providing sound leadership is essential in beefing up this effort performance relationship. Another example might be that if an employee believes that recompense for worthy acts or retribution for wrongdoing may be perceived as improbable for junior staff, thus deteriorating the employee’s motivation to carry out his duties. If an employee can execute his duties well but does not appreciate the reward provided, then the particular employee is likely to be less motivated.
It is practical that some supervisors might be reasonable in terms of dispersing rewards such as recognition, promotion, pay rise, authority, responsibility, and resources, but not so in terms of process. Fair process requires attracting employees, giving them the privilege of expressing their thought, explaining why final decisions are made as they are, and illustrating expectations.
However, the fair process is lost when information is filtered and managers maintain power by preserving what they know for themselves. Employees need to be treated with honesty and value, by providing an adequate explanation.
In conclusion, expectancy theory suggests that a supervisor or manager needs to provide rewards that are appreciated by their employees and that the employees need to feel that they can accomplish their goals and high-performance will result in the recompense. Goals need to be precise and accepted by every organization’s employee, and self-set if possible so that the employee becomes physically devoted to working. In addition, process and reward sharing need to be fair to enhance trust, job performance, and motivation.
Rizzo, J. R., Tosi, H. L., & Mero, N. P. (2000). Managing Organizational Behaviour. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell.
Thompson, H. A. (2005). Currents and convergence: navigating the rivers of change. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Assoc. of College & Research Libraries.
Victor Harold Vroom. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York, NY: Wiley.