Radiation Received During Medical Imaging

Bydder, S., Joseph, J., & Spry, N. (2004). Radiology: Radiation exposure. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology, 48(1), 25–28.

The authors clearly disseminate that medical imaging and radiation owes about 50% radiation to exposure. This paper published that members of staff handling the radiation equipment and the patient undergoing radio therapy who are at a high risk of acquiring radiation induced cancer or other complications mainly depending on the level of doses.

Radiation is measured in millisieverts (mSv), every individual faces a natural exposure to radiation by approximately 3mSv,however the authors found out that the ineffective dose of radiation lies upon a range of 0-1msv,this is also compared to a previous research that was done by Alberto and Gueara (2004) where they found out that 65% of American citizens are exposed to radiation with a high percentage based on exposure to ionizing radiation through medical practices like x-ray which are used to diagnose specific diseases and injury.

The journal further outlines that high doses of radiation exposure to the degree of 20mSv is a likely cause of cancer. However, in a perspective published by Sean and David, they established that radiation will always be used to detect and treat disease thus the institutions involved should have effective and accurate equipment to measure the appropriate amount of radiation required for certain procedures. In addition, an elaborate bibliography and appendix, having the names of various advocacy movements, are also found in the book.

Leech M., Craig A., Poole, C., Broderick M., Chuinneagain, S., Coffey M., et al. (2009). Clinical oral examinations: Assessment of competency in radiaion therapy. Journal of Radiotherapy in Practice, 8(3), 115 – 118.

The innovative journal centers on the doses of radiation and there effects depending on the organ tissue exposed. Humans face exposure to natural radiation from the air, ground, food, building materials and even the elements form bodies. The paper indicates that exposure to high levels of radiation lead to changes in the body, like erythema (reddening of the skin) and other body harm. It also points out that approximate annual exposure to natural radiation is between 1-10mSv with 2.4mSv being the current central value.

The article goes ahead to emphasize on the adverse effects of radiation exposure causing death in living cells or bring about a modification; this occurs when the exposure is more than a threshold level and if cells that carry hereditary information are modified then there may occur hereditary diseases to descendants of the individual exposed. The article is well presented with properly organized bulleted points for seamless readability.

The information given is structured to provide a clear view on the causes, prevalence and risk factors of cell death due to radiation. Natural mutation on the human race has been clearly indicated by the organization as being on the increase due to exposure to high doses of radiation. Drawing from the findings of other researches, the author indicated that the military group lead to a 20% radiation exposure globally due to use of nuclear radiations. However, the article persists that effective guidelines should be put up for proper storage and use of radioactive materials so as not to be released to the public.

Cunningham, J., Coffey, M., Knöös, T., & Holmberg, O. (2010). Radiation oncology safety information system (ROSIS): Profiles of participants and the first 1074 incident reports. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 97(3), 601 – 607.

Mechanisms of cancer caused by radiation show that there are relations in dose dependant initiation of DNA damage, chromosomal mutations in the course of DNA damage, disrepair and advance of cancer. The authors’ main focus on the book is to points out how radiation exposures lead to cancer. The article presents that human beings with genetic disorders that are cancer prone have a higher likelihood of radiation induced cancer with an elevated degree of organ specificity. The journal further indicates that the underlying mechanisms leading to cancer by radiation are hard to comprehend and have not been eluded by scientists.

The authors also compared to a research done by international agency for research on cancer (2001) where they published that there is evidence in radiation induced cancer due to exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation leading to 3% exposure of radiation to the patient. The journal clearly disseminates information to medical imaging technologists giving effective and innovative knowledge on patient care.

The article goes ahead to address the effective dose of radiation is mainly termed according to the type of tissue being exposed to the radiation. Review of the literature indicates that over the past fifteen years use of strong magnetic fields (MRI) has been increasingly prevalent in producing images as compared to use of ionizing radiation by CT scan. However, the authors give detailed information that CT scan is very effective in examining calcified organs such as bones.

Cell death or harm by exposure to radiation depends on the radiological procedure; certain procedures require a high dose of radiation while others require low doses. The article was well written with a clear presentation of information. The authors used direct quotations to reinforce the feelings of the affected individuals. By interviewing the people on the frontline, they advocated against the practice of incorrect recommendation of a patient for radiation therapy.

The authors render credibility and validity to the article published and that the current problem globally is that general surgeons are capable of diagnosing certain diseases where by CT scans do not provide information that will bring about a change in the course management of the patient, thus reducing the chances of acquiring complications through exposure to radiation could be avoided by accurate study of patient history and physical examination.

References

Bydder, S., Joseph, J., & Spry, N. (2004). Radiology: Radiation exposure. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology, 48(1), 25–28.

Cunningham, J., Coffey, M., Knöös, T., & Holmberg, O. (2010). Radiation oncology safety information system (ROSIS): Profiles of participants and the first 1074 incident reports. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 97(3), 601 – 607.

Leech M., Craig A., Poole, C., Broderick M., Chuinneagain, S., Coffey M., et al. (2009). Clinical oral examinations: Assessment of competency in radiaion therapy. Journal of Radiotherapy in Practice, 8(3), 115 – 118.

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