The paradigm shift geared towards embracing DoD enterprise-wide networks from Internet Protocol Version 4 (Ipv4) to Internet Protocol Version 6 (Ipv6) was enhanced through a legal framework that was initiated by the assistant secretary of Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD NII) with a primary objective to ratifying all the DoD enterprise-wide networks.
Depending on the accord that was arrived at, the changeover projection was to be achieved by Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. The conversion structure comprised of the DoD transition plan, that envisions the transition of the Army’s academy and functional networks into a holistic network-centric entity, modifying accessibility to the war fighter knowledge base and institutional support systems, interoperability, mobility, security, reliability, scalability, and assured information integrity.
Ipv6 is a facilitating expertise of interlocked and centric functionality and warfare that includes mobile platforms, complex sensors, unmanned systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, space systems, reach-back to logistics bases, facilities, people and information. IPv4 is everywhere in the Army networks today. It is employed in addressing and transferring data throughout the Army’s tactical and institutional networks interfaced interoperably with the Global Information Grid (GIG).
The technological transition from IPv4 to IPv6 entails a lot of hardware and software systems that include applications that need to be upgraded or replaced. Most important assessments will need to be made in tandem to engineering, procurement, testing, and deployment. Throughout the conversion period, new or modified IPv6 accomplished systems as well as appliance will require to operate with the existing IPv4 systems and applications without humiliation in presentation, decline in accessibility, or conciliation of precautions.
The changeover layout delineates the sequence of steps and actions essential to sustain the alteration ambitions of the DOD and Army. The first phase of the changeover plan was to establish and analyze the current baseline of the Army’s IPv4 arrangement and products.
The second phase extends and enhances the findings of phase 1 and it starts by shaping the governance structure for managing the changeover. Tasks inherent in the second stage encompass the formation of an Army IPv6 changeover Management Working Group, augmented follow-up to the first stage data call to incorporate various programs, particularly those programs perceived as contentious to the Army’s future, and further analysis of programmatic and budgetary issues.
Background of IPv6
The fundamental enthusiasm for IPv6 is due to the explosive growth of the Internet. The Internets exponential growth has completely led to the depleting of the available space in addressing IPv4. 32- bit addresses for IPv4 was imperative in 70s but with the enormous growth in the technological industry the IPv4 addresses are too minute to handle the burgeoned appliances leading to the adoption of the IPv6 that has the capacity to accommodate multifaceted gadgets in the modern days. The IPv6 was therefore incorporated in 1996 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to surrogate the conventional version of IP (v4) to the modern version that supports 128 bits, and consequently a virtually unlimited addresses space.
Emphases of the IPv6 improvements are listed below
The bigger address space; supports a 128 bit addresses to enhance a practically unlimited supply.
Rationalized dispensation within routers: the IPv6 protocol has a basic header that enhances routes that are summarized in a pecking order. These considerably reduce the size of routing tables and improve the performance of routers. Modified multicast prop up; All IPv6 entrenchment ought to sustain multicast and also with added capability to limit the scope of multicast transmissions.
Indigenous mobility holds up; supports an enhanced version of Mobile IP, which allows laptops to connect to the network at diverse locations devoid of distracting communications.
Quality of service support; the IP header includes fields to support real-time and priority traffic.
Auto-configuration: The Internet protocol and other network-related parameters can be configured automatically with or without separate servers. Obligatory security features; All IPv6 implementations ought to support the IP security features for data integrity and privacy. Native anycast mode; offers features that have the capacity to remit anycast packets that are routed to the nearest member of the anycast group.
Change over to IPv6
Enhanced features in the IPv6 have led to a diverse IP title and matching set of preferences. Whatever thing in the system that deals directly with the IP layer (or interprets or manipulates an IPv4 addresses) will be exaggerated by IPv6 or will have to coexist with it. These encompass computer’s operating configurations, routers, management systems, video teleconferencing (VTC) gadgets, interlocked servers, firewalls, intrusion detection structures, and tactical guards. In addition to this are those computers applications that request network services.
The fundamental imperatives of these enhancements are that IPv6 is not directly backward compatible with IPv4. Thus various systems have been constructed to accommodate the two protocols to coexist and interoperate during the change over stage from IPv4 to IPv6.
This various systems include
- Embedding both IPv4 and IPv6 support in routers and computers
- Tunneling IPv6 traffic through IPv4 networks (and vice versa).
- Placing translation gateways between IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
The changeover mechanisms introduce some complexity and limitations, relative to a pure IPv4 or IPv6 network. It is anticipated that these mechanisms will be needed within the Army’s interlock for many years.
Defense force renovation
The military has been embracing a transformation to the Objective Force. The objective force supports a diverse range of options for regional engagement, crisis response, and sustained land force functionalities.
The military recognizes that the full conversion from IPv4 to IPv6 is a function of great magnitude and intricacy. Furthermore, the target of 2008 set by the OSD is rather motivated.
To realize the face up, it is fundamental for the military to construct a changeover strategy very fast, yet with the knowledge and the forethought to be in a position to act and adjust quickly to changes as they evolve. The extent of the changeover disseminates to every system, set of connections, syllabus, apparatus, or component of the military’s GIG that uses IP in many manner. It incorporates the apparent connections arrangements, as well as the more obscure elements such as sensors and weapon systems.
Consequently, functional and institutional disciplines of the military have both been incorporated. To congregate the inimitable confront, it is advisable that the military construct an IPv6 project office to function as an umbrella organization to standardize and be in charge of the governance, development, implementation, and management of the transition. To control change right through such an expansive continuum of arrangement, it is imperative that the transition strategy be developed in cooperation with all of the top-level agencies and organizations affected or impacted by the transition.
The prime players were to be employed in constructing a Transition Management Task Force that relays to the IPv6 Program Office. Its permit would be to direct each phase of the changeover; Governance, Transition Engineering, System Engineering, and Implementation Planning.
With the allotment of the OSD authorization to execute IPv6, it is apparently obvious that the military changeover to the IPv6 is no longer a matter of when, but how. Appropriate setting up will thwart many long-standing troubles and lead to many seamless transition. Changeover setting up will help prevent systems from being obsolete or diminished in capacity shortly after they are fielded.
An accurately accomplished conversion plan will:
- Guarantee collective networking with allied and NATO forces.
- Reduce the need for retrofit solutions and upgrades for systems currently being developed.
- Support of the newest and modified capabilities offered by IPv6 earlier in the structures life cycle.
- Mitigate the risks associated with a new technology or protocol.
- Accurately assess cost and scheduling impacts.
Mechanical specifications illustrating IPv6 as well as associated services are being developed by the IETF through the RFC standards-track process that encompass outlined specifications, draft specifications, and Internet standards. IPv6 principles include the illustration of the IPv6 packet header and address configurations. Services incorporate such features as direction finding, mobility, safety measures, and auto-configuration. The military, championed by CERDEC and in cooperation with the CIO/G6 office, will participate in the IETF standards process to influence the development of those principles that are of scrupulous concentration to the Army and the DOD in wide-ranging.
The military will work with the DoD to scrutinize as well as follow the accessibility of IPv6 products. As products become obtainable, the military will allocate announcements to its program managers and product developers. Products that are currently IPv6 capable include Cisco routers, Solaris 8, Windows XP, windows 2003 Server, and some versions of Linux.
After road and rail network items and operating systems become more ubiquitous, applications and middleware products are expected to follow comparatively swiftly.
To alleviate menace and to substantiate proper function and interoperability of IP products, the military recommends constructing a system manufacturing squad. The panels will execute product reappraisal, concert and interoperability testing, modeling and simulation, safekeeping authentication, as well as other industrial assessment. They will work closely with Joint and Coalition teams to test interoperability, and they will involve themselves in the development of the technical standards.
Changeover combination is the embedment of the IPv6 products and services into the Army’s GIG. By the year 2008, all communications systems and products are anticipated to be IPv6 capable while retaining all of their IPv4 functionality. This offers an opportunity for willingness in anticipation of the time for the activation to the IPv6 capabilities.
Classification incorporation has a local and universal constituent. Remote constituent is concerned with the incorporation of all the elements within the control of the system developer.
This may be, for design, a client/server system running on a single LAN. The global component of system integration is concerned with those elements that are beyond the control of a system developer. A disseminated database may be running IPv6 locally at several locations, but the WAN interconnections between databases may not be. In such cases, an assortment of substitute methods must be considered such as the use of gateway devices, tunneling, and dual-stack operation, in order for the distributed database application to run in its native IPv6 mode. System integration engineering will provide technological assistance and harmonization for such efforts.
IP Implementations and Occupation
The functionalities of the IP are entwined with a host of utility. Such functions include system arrangements, statistics transportation, statistics exchange, network management, and information assurance. The compartments in which each the military system uses these functions depending on the role of the system. A client/server system, such as AFATDS, is concerned with configuration and data exchange. A system like NIPRINET, is concerned with data transport. Statistics from the survey indicates that there is broad spectrum of machinery, products and services that are IP dependent in one way or another.
IP arrangement incorporates the forecast, allocation, and attainment of IP parameters such as system address, gateway, domain name, and multicast panels. The diverse models of arranging Internet Protocols configurations, as indicated by the survey responses, were static arrangements, address book look-up, DNS lookup, booth, and DHCP. Some systems use customized configurations management programs, such as MMS-P or FBCB2, to download arrangements to customers. Many components employ graphical user interface screens to configure Internet Protocol parameters.
Statistical transport refers to the communications infrastructure system that offers WAN connectivity. Typical components include routers, ATM exchanges, satellite workstation, RF radio devices, and telephone lines. Current and planned military components that provide such services are SIPRINET, NIPRINET, DISN, ACUS/MSE, JWICS, and WIN-T.
Statistical exchange refers to a transportation gathering between two devices. Common appliances and protocols used by military to data substitute services include DNS, FTP, telnet, SSH, SSL, NTP, email, web server, and NTP.
The most common network management protocol used by the military, and the business world, is SNMP. SNMP employs an agent software application on the managed device to switch over executive in sequence with the network management server. IP addresses are employed in all infrastructures. The IPv6 survey did not have any questions directly related to network management and most respondents did not indicate how their systems were being manned.
It has been assumed that most structures use network management and employ popular business product like HP Open view or employ military customized product like ISYSCON. Subsequent inquiries to the PEOs should solicit more information on this topic.
In rank assurance refers to the firewalls, access control lists, intrusion detection, virus defense and recognition, encryption, and other such services that defend networks and statistics.
Numerous of these services use IP as means of scrutinizing and pass through a filter statistics.
Unambiguous uncertainty concerning IA were not on the assessment, were not on the survey, but several respondents raised concerns about open-standard encryption protocols, such as 3DES, and common army encryption devices that complete IP routing functions, such as TACLANE, TACLINK and SIP/INC. One program Distributing Learning System, mentioned that they use an encryption device by Fortress Technologies.