Civilization is the general transformation or progression from one lower stage to another that includes several aspects of composite authority in spiritual, law, or solid organizational values. Communal, superior quality thinking and general performance attached for the benefit of a bigger population generate quick growth that enhances civilization. Historians have found out that the larger and densely inhabited urban areas were the first places to experience civilization.
Civilization has a solid attachment from the ancient to present states. Historical studies have revealed that to recognize the modernity of the present world it is indeed essential to explore the emergence of western civilization.
Roman ancient cultures had a great impact on western civilization. Language arts, social life, education, and many other agents of civilization can be traced back to this region. This era started after the defeat of the Monarchy, 510 BC that went up to over 450 years period. The famous city of Rome was the center of administration to the entire Roman Empire. Records show that the city of Rome had meticulous buildings and monumental structures that were seen to be ranging from modest houses, palaces, and villas.
The whole territory of the Roman Empire that was known to be covering Morocco, Cumbria, and Mesopotamia through North Africa up to Scotland, had seen the significant influence of its cultures and traditions. The city of Rome was the largest at that period and was the home of over 3.5 million inhabitants. The urban influx in Rome depended especially on food supplies and basic commodities from the Italian farms.
At that time Italy was indeed also one of the most urbanized areas of the empire and had numerous tasks of supplying food to Rome since large farms were situated there. Commercial activities thrived in this region due to efficient cost-effective transportation that was similar to some European countries in the 18th century. It is believed that many cultural similarities of the Roman Empire are greatly derived from the ancient Greeks.
The greatest Roman contributions to architectural structures were the dome and the legendary arch. The Latin language was dominantly used and had remained powerful in science, law, and religion throughout the civilized world. It is in this city that Christianity had its basic foundations. In Rome, different classes of people were identified by the cord of clothing especially where dark tunic was being worn by the ordinary man who happened to be slaves or shepherds.
White wool or linen was worn by intellectuals. The type of foot ware was also a distinctive factor where Patricians were using orange or red shoes that were informed of sandals. Romans had their food taken just before noon and contained cold meat, nuts, cheese, olive, salads, and fruits; wine was also given a great priority. Most of the family members ate together. Their women and children ate independently, but soon after the territory era, with liberalism entering in; still, respectable women would be present at such banquet parties.
Romans had their native language as Latin which later had a vast influence on religious wisdom. The steady development of the Roman Empire made the Latin Language spread all over Europe and ultimately used as the official language of the region even by the Greeks. It is seen that many European languages have a close resemblance to the Latin language; which as of now is almost extinct or with very few speakers. Rome will be remembered as one of the first centers of education of ancient inhabitants.
The Near East had the earliest known evolution history records that made the fundamentals of many societies of the West. The main backbone of the Greek civilization was the learning system, vocal communication, politics, idea, sciences, and arts. There are some periods in the Greek civilization that historians view as the turning points of the evolution of modern culture. The time of practical or ceramic pottery, the dark ages that were around 1150BC, where geometry came to full use in pottery and designs, and eventually the archaic period.
The people who ultimately became Greeks are said to have migrated from the Balkan Peninsula in 2000BC. The archaic era saw Greece’s population swell beyond its land that resulted in the total spreading of their colonies in all parts of Cyprus, Asia Minor, and south seaside of the black sea; and went as far as Ukraine and Russia. Some Greek colonies were founded in Libya and Egypt. The entire region had vast influence from Greece and resulted in long distant trades throughout Europe.
The political structure of the Greeks was unique and had stable foundations that also had an immediate influence on the West. The Greeks of the orthodox period completed numerous eminent assistance to knowledge that in the end founded current scientific principles. The academic custom of the Greek learning institutions was maintained during the Roman period with some educational institutions in Alexandria, Antioch, and Constantinople.
Many conventional themes and cultures that were adopted from the ancient Roman and Greek empires were integrated and eventually reached the far ends of the modern West. The establishments of modern laws and federal systems of rule that still exist in the western regions are all traced from the ancient empires. One of the most notable inheritances apart from positive cultures that the West got from this region is homosexuality; which Greeks saw as a natural behavior amongst the population. There were also the antique Hebrews that lived in one of the most hemispherical fertile regions.
Due to surrounding inhabitants, they came to expand their own ideas which had a different combination of cultures. It is said that they deem God had control over their daily lives and that made them record every proceeding in their consecrated book Torah. The Hebrews were nomads that lived in Mesopotamia and later moved with their flocks of goats and sheep to Palestine around 2000BC. There was an immense famine that broke out in Palestine that forced them to Egypt and were later enslaved as written in the book of Genesis.
The book says that Moses was instructed by God to deliver them from slavery and back to their original land of Canaan as they believe. It is when they came back that the Kingdom of Israel was founded. They had some of the most eloquent leaders history has ever known. King David was one of the respected leaders who united the fighting Hebrew communities to a stronger nation. The successor of King David; Solomon, made Jerusalem a splendid city.
Through the wisdom of King Solomon, he managed to enhance Israel’s relationship with the powerful nations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. The greatest failure came when he imposed heavy taxes and forced labor for the huge buildings; which later broke revolutions and to the division of the kingdom. Upon his death at around 930 BC, The Hebrews were divided and were later invaded by the foreign armies and which again took many of them to captivity in Babylon. Their help came at the time Cyrus conquered Babylon and released the Hebrews and that is where their name changed to Jews. They indeed continued to live under many alien rulers that incorporated Greeks, Romans, and the Persians.
James Bake and Spielvogel J. western.Western Civilization, Boston: Mc Graw, 2004.