The care plan to address the acute low back pain should include education regarding the possibility of physical activity, the guidelines regarding the work activities and treatment, and the guidelines regarding the prevention or minimization of risks associated with developing chronic back pain. The first teaching point to include in the care plan and provided education is the discussion of the nature of the pain in order to exclude the neurological problems and dysfunctions (Balague, Mannion, Pellise, & Cedraschi, 2012). The second point is the education regarding professional activities because this type of pain is often associated with the patients’ work (Gellhorn, Chan, Martin, & Friedly, 2012). During the period of treating the acute symptoms and pain, patients should pay more attention to the rest and avoid any activities that can provoke severe pain. It is also important to note that bed rest is not an effective treatment in this case, and the physical activity should be balanced with the focus on avoiding risky behaviors, such as lifting heavy things (Casazza, 2012). When the pain is not in the acute stage, it is possible to develop a plan of physical exercises that should include walking or swimming, depending on the diagnosis (Balague et al., 2012). The patient should be educated regarding possibilities of returning to usual activities that can include yoga or other exercises.
The next point is the education regarding medications used to relieve acute pain. These medications can include anti-inflammatory drugs. The patient should also know what medications he or she can use for coping with a muscle spasm (Casazza, 2012). The patient needs to be educated regarding the possibility of using manipulative treatment and therapies that can be effective to address acute and chronic low back pain (Balague et al., 2012). The nurse should also provide education regarding the necessity of maintaining the weight in order to decrease the pressure on the spine and teach how to stand and sit appropriately while diminishing the acute and chronic pain (Balague et al., 2012; Gellhorn et al., 2012). In addition to providing recommendations regarding the use of footstools while standing or using pillows to support the back while sitting, it is also important to give recommendations regarding sleep (Casazza, 2012). While sleeping on a non-appropriate mattress, a person can also suffer from pain and low quality of sleep which affect the psychological state of the patient.
The prevention strategies are oriented to predicting the worsening of symptoms associated with acute pain, as well as to preventing the development of similar problems in the future. Physical activity is also important as a prevention measure to avoid low back pain or predict the development of back pain into the chronic form. It is also necessary to inform the patient about postural improvement, the use of devices to relieve the pain, and the use of special devices for stretching when they are recommended. It is also important to decrease the psychological stress associated with the dysfunction and discuss the possibilities of quick recovery and good outcomes. Much attention should be paid to discussing how all the proposed treatment options and guidelines can contribute to overcoming the health problem within the shortest period of time.
Balague, F., Mannion, A. F., Pellise, F., & Cedraschi, C. (2012). Non-specific low back pain. The Lancet, 379(98), 482-491.
Casazza, B. A. (2012). Diagnosis and treatment of acute low back pain. American Family Physician, 85(4), 343-360.
Gellhorn, A. C., Chan, L., Martin, B., & Friedly, J. (2012). Management patterns in acute low back pain: The role of physical therapy. Spine, 37(9), 775-782.