Prostate cancer is one of the most spread among the American men. African American men are more subject to developing the prostate cancer compared to other races (Lindquist et al., 2016). The mortality is also high. Thus, it is necessary to study the causes of the disease and its peculiarities within this particular ethnic group.
The qualitative research will use the method of literature analysis. The researches presented in peer-reviewed articles within the last five years will be considered. Special attention will be given to the state of the problem in Maryland. The key search terms are African American men, prostate cancer, Maryland.
Results of the Systematic Literature Review
The major theories in the studies that were analyzed were as follows. First of all, the theory of genetic predisposition of African American men to prostate cancer. Other theories deal with the low income which results in late detection of cancer and poor access to treatment.
The researches use the methods of statistical analysis, patient population and study design, information search, comparative analysis, and multivariable logistic regression.
Synthesis of Research Findings
DeSantis, Siegel, Sauer, Miller, Fedewa, Alcaraz, and Jemal (2016).
Detected cancer prevalence.
Provided the study of the selected cancers.
Analyzed treatment and survival.
Lindquist et al. (2016).
Characterized somatic mutations in aggressive prostate tumors.
Observed 24 African American patients.
Described locations of somatic mutations.
Identified mutations specific for African American patients.
Mahal et al. (2014).
Investigated the connection of health insurance and cancer survival improvement.
Revealed lower chance for treatment among African American men.
Shenoy, Packianathan, Chen, and Vijayakumar (2016).
Studied the necessity of particular prostate cancer screening guidelines for African American men.
Traced genetic differences for prostate cancer.
Wu and Modlin (2012).
Analyzed the causes of differences of prostate cancer development in African American men.
Assessed the genetic predisposition.
Revealed the problem of later cancer detection.
Ziehr et al. (2014).
Analyzed 102,486 cases of cancer survivors.
Discovered racial disparities in the access to therapy for prostate cancer.
The primary idea of the studies is the genetic factor. The investigations prove the presence of genetic predisposition. Thus, another concept is that the African American men need a separate approach to screening to diagnose prostate cancer. Besides, the conclusion is made that the mortality of prostate cancer among the African American men is higher due to the worse access to diagnosing and treatment. The mentioned above factor if the result of lower incomes among this ethnic group.
The strong point of the studies is that they use statistical information. Still, the fact that every research is based on different population limits the broad application of the results. A key stakeholder for cancer in the US is American Cancer Society, which gathers statistical information on various cancer cases.
Further research may be conducted in the sphere of early detection of prostate cancer in African American men which will decrease the mortality.
On the whole, the matter of prostate cancer is widely investigated. Such popularity is preconditioned by the frequency of cases among men. The researches prove that African American are more exposed to the risk of developing prostate cancer than other races. That is why attention should be given to the improvement of diagnostics. Besides, the government should increase the access to cancer treatment among the diverse population.
DeSantis, C.E., Siegel, R., Sauer, A.G., Miller, K.D., Fedewa, S.A., Alcaraz, K.I., & Jemal, A. (2016). Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 66(4), 290-308.
Lindquist, K.J., Paris, P.L., Hoffmann, T.J., Cardin, N.J., Kazma, R., Mefford, J.A. … Witte, J.S. (2016). Mutational landscape of aggressive prostate tumors in African American men. Cancer Research, 76(7), 1860-1868. Web.
Mahal, B.A., Ziehr, D.R., Aizer, A.A., Hyatt, A.S., Sammon, J.D., Schmid, M. … Nguyen, P.L. (2014). Getting back to equal: The influence of insurance status on racial disparities in the treatment of African American men with high-risk prostate cancer. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, 32(8), 1285-1291. Web.
Shenoy, D., Packianathan, S., Chen, A.M., & Vijayakumar, S. (2016). Do African-American men need separate prostate cancer screening guidelines? BMC Urology, 16(19), 1-6. Web.
Wu, I., & Modlin, C.S. (2012). Disparities in prostate cancer in African American men: What primary care physicians can do. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 79(5), 313-320. Web.
Ziehr, D.R., Mahal, B.A., Aizer, A.A., Hyatt, A.S., Beard, C.J., D’Amico, A.V. … Nguyen, P.L. (2014). Income inequality and treatment of African American men with high-risk prostate cancer. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, 33(8), 1078-1439. Web.