Overpopulation: Causes, Effects, and Solutions

Overpopulation is a phenomenon that is usually considered an adverse trend, which arises when the population becomes excessive and leads to various negative consequences. It is possible to notice that society has been receiving disappointing data about the substantial and uncontrollable increase in the population number for the last decades. Scientists and governments show the concern that the situation is likely to deteriorate over time without global changes and significant efforts to manage it. According to Uniyal, world population growth was approximately 2% per annum from 1960-2000, which indicates a potential population doubling every 35 years (2). Researchers predict that overpopulation will provoke implications on the environment, people themselves, and other living creatures. Even the normal functioning of the globe can be damaged, which would make the existence of life on the Earth impossible. Therefore, further considering of every aspect of an issue is required. This proposal paper will provide the reasons for overpopulation, their causes and effects, and discuss in detail possible solutions for the problem, including their benefits and costs.

The phenomenon of overpopulation is not prevalent for wild species as natural predators’ presence is the natural method of this issue regulation. However, people are at the top of the food chain that implies the impossibility of similar population management technique implementation. Simultaneously, life is considered as the greatest value that only contributes to the duration of an individual’s life and their number while resources to sustain it are limited. It is necessary to focus specifically on the human being’s features that can be examined from the perspective of overpopulation managing without violation of primary moral rules.

Firstly, the severe cause of overpopulation that can be controlled is the high fertility of human beings, particularly those with an Asian background. Among the legal immigrants from Asia, the nationality that grew the fastest between 2000 and 2010 was Indians (an increase in population growth of 68%) (Newton 53). This situation contributed to the absence of restrictions on the number of children and anachronistic traditions attributed to the periods of wars while having more children meant higher chances to survive. The second main reason for the rise of the overpopulation issue is upbringing (Newton 55). Highly developed countries population is aware of the need to support a certain number of children. On the other hand, it is noticeable that nations with inadequate education are less capable of estimating their resources and abilities to maintain a decent quality of life for every individual (Uniyal 2). Humans specificities represent an immediate threat to all living creatures, so they should be appropriately considered. The mentioned reasons are the ones of great significance and most illustrative, which enables to outlines their particular influences and propose appropriate solutions.

The number of threats and effects the overpopulation cause are numerous. Natural resource consumption is increased, and it results in a decline in biocapacity. Uniyal claims that “biocapacity per head decreased from 3,2 global hectares in 1961 to 1,8 hectares per capita in 2008” (6). Although it is partially connected with urbanization and technological development, scientists assign a predominant role to an increased number of people. Energy consumption is the second substantial issue caused by the phenomenon. According to Uniyal, “usage of energy has boosted by 85% globally and reached more than 300% for Asia, in the last decades” (7). Power demand accompanies the number of devices individuals have in their households, and it exponentially rises along with the population. The mentioned dangers show how overpopulation influences Earth and outlines the necessary steps that may rectify that situation.

The primary goal is to prevent future adverse consequences and additional dangers to the Earth that begin from current intimidations removing. Humanity can adopt several approaches to combat the problem. On the national level, one of the solutions is to provide individuals with family planning to achieve smaller family sizes. It will contribute to reduced rates of deforestation, desertification, and land degradation (Hendrixson 252). This solution will not require significant expenses as the distribution of an electronic plan can be implemented via governments’ web sources while the research is not expected to be costly.

The rise of the legal age of marriage along with firm child marriage restriction can positively influence the rural countries’ population size without additional financing. In lower fertility countries, adequate interventions can be baby bonuses elimination and fertility treatment funding. The financial flows will be reprioritized, without a significant increase, while the benefit is the potential reduction of population growth. It is also important to promote the adoption and education of teenage children about sex and contraception. Such actions are not expensive as well but are expected to result in lower levels of unwanted pregnancy and fewer number of orphans. The contemporary world should concentrate efforts on weak points To increase the overall life quality. The listed approaches help to control fertility and reduce the detrimental effects in the future.

At second glance, the problem of overpopulation derives from insufficient efforts in managing the number of people and high fertility, which is inherent for people. Overpopulation provokes considerable consequences to the environment and a basic standard of living, as it increases the consumption of energy and natural resources. Despite the severity of the situation, family planning methods, along with the appropriate restrictions, promotions of adoption, and specific education, may prevent the crisis.

Works Cited

Davis, Adam C. “The Problem of Overpopulation: Proenvironmental Concerns and Behavior Predict Reproductive Attitudes”. Ecopsychology, vol. 11, no. 2, 2018, pp. 92–100.

Hendrixson, Anne. “Threats and Burdens: Challenging Scarcity-Driven Narratives of “Overpopulation”. Geoforum, vol. 101, 2018, pp. 250–259.

Newton, David E. Overpopulation: 7 Billion People and Counting. Enslow Publishing, 2016.

The Overpopulation Project. “Solutions to overpopulation and what you can do.” Overpopulation project, 2019, Web.

Uniyal, Shivani. “Human Overpopulation: Impact on Environment.” Environmental Issues Surrounding Human Overpopulation: An Anthology, edited by Rajeev Pratap Singh et al., IGI Global, 2016, pp. 1–12.

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