Organizational Behavior Study: Literature Review


Organizational behavior is a concept that enables leadership to assess and analyze the conduct of employees in an organization. This domain has been widely covered by many researchers, and they link it to the work motivation of the staff. In its turn, motivation is determined by both material and psychological factors. Such scientists as Maslow, Vroom, Herzberg, and others attributed the levels of motivation to different aspects (hygiene factors, the need for increased attention, or exalted requirements); nevertheless, all of the researchers stressed out that motivation and commitment to work are directly linked to the individual’s personality in the first place.


It should be noted that job satisfaction is an emotional condition of workers that drives them to perform their duties more thoroughly. Importantly, it derives from both their personal and organizational evaluation. Job satisfaction is connected to the perceptions of how a person contributes to his or her work and the way it addresses his or her needs in return (Jex & Britt, 2014). Different academic researches on this topic exist, and it is essential to highlight that each of them reveals the notion of organizational behavior in a different manner.

Literature Review

Multiple theories have been developed about employee commitment and job satisfaction, and all of them contributed to the development of the organizational behavior domain (Jex & Britt, 2014). For instance, Herzberg came up with a two-factor theory, which states that a person’s content with work is dependent on the internal characteristics and essence of the actual duties while dissatisfaction should be linked to the attributes of the external work and the context in which it is to be performed (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2014). According to the researcher, the two most crucial issues in this relation are hygiene and motivator factors. This approach is rather close to the well-known Maslow’s pyramid of needs. To be more precise, the lower levels of the pyramid correlate with the hygienic requirements proposed by Herzberg, and the highest levels are similar to the motivating factors. Nevertheless, Maslow’s theory is more flexible while the scientist stated that the levels could alter from one individual to another (Pinder, 2014).

It should be mentioned that the needs of employees can be very diverse and the method of needs assessment is more multipurpose about the instinctive, basic, and exalted employees’ requirements. It should be stressed out that the basic needs dominate when they are not satisfied while the distinguished ones come to the forefront when the basic needs are addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, the severity of them, as a rule, can be pronounced to a different degree in employees.

Hawthorne Effect is another approach developed in the area of organizational behavior (Latham, 2012). The core of it is the idea that the amplified attention of leadership to the worker facilitates higher motivation and dedication. Meanwhile, Weiner’s attribution theory justifies employee motivation by an intention to achieve higher goals (Wilson, Hill, & Glazer, 2013). Whereas, Vroom’s theory stated that the existence of particular needs could not drive an employee to be fully engaged in goal achieving (Miner, 2015).

Nevertheless, all of the studies have a limitation, which unites them. Notably, not much attention was brought to the idea that the work setting requires a simultaneous material and spiritual stimulation of the employees to achieve higher commitment and performance. This situation is characteristic of the contemporary work conditions, especially in large-scale companies.

Potential Contribution

As evidenced by the conducted literature review, much thought was brought to the analysis of the organizational behavior and its implications. However, the limitation of the researches provided a bounded perspective on that matter, and it implies that the described theories and concepts cannot be applied unconditionally to any company, and a more advanced study that would consider the current conditions is essential. Therefore, it can be assumed that the proposed research will allow dwelling upon a new significant perspective of organizational behavior, which will ensure that companies sustain their competitive edge.


Jex, S., & Britt, T. (2014). Organizational psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Latham, G. (2012). Work motivation. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Miner, J. (2015). Organizational behavior 4: From theory to practice. New York, NY: Routledge.

Pinder, C. (2014). Work motivation in organizational behavior (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Wagner, J., & Hollenbeck, J. (2014). Organizational behavior: Securing competitive advantage. New York, NY: Routledge.

Wilson, R., Hill, A., & Glazer, H. (2013). Tools and tactics for operations managers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press.

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