Organizational culture has indeed been its part for an extended time, though organizations’ members and staff do not always inherit their beliefs and values. Some people may join an organization because of their personal needs or compelled reasons, yet they do not wish to share its cultural importance. Teece (2016) states that ambidexterity is inherent for many organizations, which means being a member of such organizations is encompassed with flexibility and adaptability; still, it does not necessarily mean that a member has detectable features of the culture in their mind. Thereby, I believe that 70% is too much and that many outsiders cannot discern the organization’s culture through the senses of its members.
As for the pressure for change and pressure for stability, I agree with the statements made. It is nearly impossible to remain stable without embracing the changes that the environment requires. However, certain limitations demand accuracy from an organization in the changing process. According to Teece (2016), “large organizations are confronted by such rapid change in the business environment” (p. 203). It means that if an organization is large, it may simply not have enough time to react to the changes adequately, and therefore endanger its stability.
Considering the confrontation between evidence-based management principles and non-programmed decisions, managers should make top-rated decisions based on the best available evidence. However, some situations demand making a decision without any data available. In this case, a manager can apply a dynamic risk approach using general economic information to make a non-programmed decision that would benefit the corresponding organization the most (Khan et al., 2016). Thus, intuitive choices are made based on a manager’s knowledge and experience.
The rational and political models are both applicable in different situations, though I agree that the political model is more likely to be used in a rapidly changing organization. Such an organization requires its managers to sense opportunities, develop and implement various business models, build capabilities, and guide the organization through transformation (Teece, 2016). Therefore, the political model is a more appropriate choice in most cases.
As for the inclusion of biblical implications, God indeed never meant for things to stay the same, yet it would be wise to interpret this statement carefully. Concerning organizational management, the changes should never ruin the organization’s stability, and its stability should never get in the way of changes. It means that an organization should embrace changes according to God’s will, yet it should maintain its stability as an organizational priority. For an organization, willingness to change is a prime necessity in today’s world; however, it also implies the ability to juxtapose those changes with the organizational essence and adapt to the business environment appropriately.
Responding to T
The statement that only an insider with several years of work experience can truly attest to the organization’s cultural values is only partially true. These values are more observable for the people who have insight view. For instance, Schoemaker et al. (2018) state that shared culture’s purpose is to guide risk-taking, learning, and failure tolerance among an organization’s members. Something that crucial cannot be completely clear to an outsider. However, some people may be discerning enough to understand the organizational culture without being a member. I believe that 20% is a rational number of outsiders in this case.
I do agree that environmental forces cause the necessity to evolve constantly. However, I do not think that organizations always have to restructure their domain to compete with other businesses. For example, Singh et al. (2019) claim that the essential strategic resource in competition in the dynamic environment is knowledge. That means that environmental forces do not always lead to restructuring but force an organization to obtain expertise and progress.
I agree that evidence-based management enhances the decisions that are made based on experience and intuition. However, these types of leadership do not always correlate with each other. Intuition is something that managers have to use when there is no evidence-based information. Certain situations either require evidence-based management or force managers to apply intuition due to the absence of data. According to Schoemaker et al. (2018), intuition is reflected by dynamic capabilities. Thus, a manager’s ability to act intuitively is determined by his knowledge and experience.
I share the opinion that the choice between rational and political models depends on the level of conflict in an organization. Singh et al. (2019) emphasize the significance of knowledge value and its influence on organizational performance. It is especially actual for a rapidly changing organization since the knowledge mentioned above constantly expands. Therefore, it is essential to apply specific circumstances while choosing between rational and political models in a rapidly evolving organization.
I agree that managers should not cause unnecessary conflict and harm and attend to the management with honesty, openness, and integrity. As T. correctly states, many biblical realities can be implied in managing organizational processes. Schoemaker et al. (2018) claim that years to come will entail many complex organizational challenges. At times like this, the general success of an organization ultimately depends on its managers. From this point of view, applying a biblical worldview is an excellent way of ensuring management effectiveness.
Khan, F., Hashemi, S. J., Paltrinieri, N., Amyotte, P., Cozzani, V., & Reniers, G. (2016). Dynamic risk management: A contemporary approach to process safety management. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 14, 9-17.
Teece, D. J. (2016). Dynamic capabilities and entrepreneurial management in large organizations: Toward a theory of the (entrepreneurial) firm. European Economic Review, 86, 202-216.
Singh, S. K., Gupta, S., Busso, D., & Kamboj, S. (2019). Top management knowledge value, knowledge sharing practices, open innovation and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 128, 788-798.
Schoemaker, P. J., Heaton, S., & Teece, D. (2018). Innovation, dynamic capabilities, and leadership. California Management Review, 61(1), 15-42.