Human Resource Management With Evidence-Based Practice


Working with the company’s personnel is presented as one of the main and essential parts of modern management. It is an activity that is aimed at providing the organization with highly qualified employees who will be able to perform their tasks and functions efficiently and successfully. In addition, personnel management includes work on the optimal use of the company’s personnel. To improve it managers can use evidence-based practices in their work.

An evaluation of the concept of evidence-based practice, including how it can be applied to decision-making in people’s practice.

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a valuable business management tool. Its key component is the formation of actions and solutions based on proven scientific data. This approach promotes greater use and close attention of persons involved in making important decisions to the evidence of particular information (Lehane et al., 2019). The purpose of the EBP is that new and effective evidence from various studies should form the basis for taking any action and not unfounded or outdated practices, such as traditions or intuition.

However, there is a point of view that such an approach cannot be considered useful and effective. This is due to the fact that some studies are conducted at the population level. The results of these works cannot be correlated to each individual. Thus, this method may become ineffective when making certain decisions for an individual, while more traditional methods can provide better consideration of these differences. However, many practices include older aspects, such as traditions, generally accepted beliefs and personal values. On the other hand, it is emphasized that the evidence-based approach makes it possible to observe and evaluate the process of implementing management decisions. Moreover, it helps to increase the quantity and quality of feedback in the evaluation processes, providing important information about the effectiveness of the actions taken.

Of particular importance in the modern world is the ability to adopt ways of solving problems that minimize risk and open new opportunities for the organization. That is why the application of methods that rely on evidence-based practice can be beneficial. The two chosen approaches that are applied to evaluate and identify various organizational issues are critical thinking and the rational planning model.

Strengths Drawbacks How this supports sound
Critical thinking Makes it possible to come to balanced decisions helps perceive information skeptically. The manager works with future, unknown events. Takes into account the factors of the external environment in the medium, short-term and long-term planning.
Rational planning model Gives a complete picture of the company’s goals and priorities, defines problems, identifies further plans and policies. Difficult to obtain complete information and make decisions; may refer to unrealistic solutions and assumptions. Helps to plan the components of the business and anticipates the results of decisions.

Sometimes people face certain obstacles working within the organization. Indeed, these problems may not be solved straight away, and there might be a need to implement specific decision-making tools. For instance, employees’ dissatisfaction, low salaries, and poor organizational management may become stumbling blocks for a significant part of corporate workers. The two abovementioned tools of decision-making might influence and facilitate the process of problem-solving and establish the working process in an appropriate direction.

When making decisions based on data, it is necessary to take into account the factors and trends of the external environment in the medium, short-term and long-term planning. In this case, the lack of critical thinking can direct the decision-making process in the wrong direction. The advantage of critical thinking is that it makes it possible to come to a common, balanced decision. The disadvantage can be considered that the manager in this case works with future, unknown events that cannot be predicted.

It is also worth mentioning the approach of rational planning, which can be applied in human practice. It helps to clearly and concretely plan all the existing components of the business and also anticipates the approximate results of certain decisions made. This approach is effective because it gives a complete picture of the company’s goals and priorities. The main disadvantage of this model is the fact that in complex situations it is quite difficult to get complete information and thereby make optimal decisions.

An evaluation of a range of analysis tools and methods, including how they can be applied to diagnose organizational issues, challenges, and opportunities.

The fishbone is a diagram used to determine and examine possible implications that cause an organizational problem. Businesses benefit from using this method of analyzing the environment since it contributes to maintaining focus on the greater problem rather than less significant issues. Researchers mention that this method is useful for determining the causes and effects of certain actions and factors on the organization (Coccia, 2018). There are, however, specific disadvantages to using the fishbone diagram, such as confusion due to the analysis of both relevant and irrelevant symptoms that may or may not lead to issues. It is still a complex tool to motivate a team to brainstorm ideas.

A business can benefit from using a balanced scorecard since it allows managers to analyze actions and their influence on the organization. Researchers refer to this method as a way of externalizing a vision into direct actions (Nørreklit et al., 2018). This diagram is helpful in increasing a visual representation of a particular strategy, which helps team members assess the situation similar to the fishbone structure. However, there are specific negative implications when it comes to linking unnecessary causes to effects, which is misleading for employees. A balanced scorecard is still an excellent way of taking an abstract notion and externalizing it into statements and tasks for the team.

PESTLE’s main advantage is the opportunity to assess both internal and external factors that impact a business. According to researchers, this is a valuable method of analyzing the opportunities and threats of an organization (Perrera, 2017). However, the disadvantage is its simplicity of it and the narrow domains that it examines. PESTLE is a straightforward and uncomplicated way of determining how an organization operates and what it can achieve.

Porter’s Five Forces is an analysis tool most helpful when examining how a business can compete in the market. Its main advantage is the idea of focusing on competitiveness through customer demand and rivals (Khurram, 2020). However, its disadvantage is the lack of perspective on the ever-changing market that is not included in this scheme. Porter’s five forces is a strategic tool that companies use to assess the market and the buyers compared to PESTLE, which examines a broader array of factors.

The method used to assess potential issues such as legislation impacts is PESTLE. On the other hand, Porter’s five forces is often used to examine such challenges as new competitors. Internal challenges are usually assessed through the fishbone diagram and a scorecard. Growth opportunities can be examined using the PESTLE method and highlighted through the fishbone strategy of visualizing a concept by illustrating the diagram.

An explanation of the principles of critical thinking, including ways to apply these to my own and others’ ideas.

The constant flow of new information in modern society and its various forms of presentation require new approaches for its processing and perception. One of the methods for analyzing new knowledge and ideas is critical thinking. Its development is important in order to learn how to perceive new information, and make informed and balanced decisions that will help to improve the company’s performance in the most important way. This applies not only to the organization’s personal data but also to third-party sources.

The main principles of critical thinking can be the following:

  • recognition that each person may have a different way of thinking.
  • awareness that people’s opinions are mediated by their environment and experience.
  • acceptance that there is no single correct answer or point of view to the problem.
  • critical thinking begins with asking questions and finding out the problems that need to be solved.
  • understanding that this way of thinking requires convincing arguments.
  • acceptance that any point requires communication and discussion with others.

These basic principles should be applied when finding ways to solve a problem and when evaluating any opinions. This is due to the fact that other people can bring constructive assumptions and ideas, due to the experience and knowledge that the other party may not have. In addition, evidence-based practice can also be significantly significant in critical thinking. After all, assumptions supported by the knowledge of various studies and practices can have a specific meaning when commenting on someone’s opinion.

AC 1.4 – An assessment of how different ethical perspectives can influence decision-making.

Two contrasting yet relatively similar ethical theories are utilitarianism and altruism. The concept of utilitarianism is founded on the idea of performing actions that would benefit every team member equally. The drawback is the system itself and the concept of the individual being meaningless compared to the collective. When each person is viewed the same, it is hard to reward those who perform better. However, the benefit of this theory is creating a positive organizational environment where each employee feels equal to their peers. The decision-making process based on utilitarianism tends to consider collective benefits, positive implications for each team members, and minimization of action that can lead to harmful consequences. The aim to combat negative consequences is a positive notion, yet it creates a confusing need for predictions. Since not all effects can be predicted by analyzing actions, such a method can lead to significant challenges for the business as a whole. For example, a leader who uses utilitarian decision-making values will miss an opportunity of investing more resources into innovations versus bonuses for the workforce, while investments in new products will lead to an increase in all wages if it is successful. While there are possible negative implications, viewing individuals as equals is an excellent decision-making concept that is often appreciated by the workforce.

Altruism is another ethical theory based on focusing on others in terms of mental, financial, and social well-being. Altruism exemplified in decision-making processes has several benefits, such as increased efficiency and a loyal customer base. However, such concepts can be damaging in terms of a leader’s liability for all possible risks and disregard of outcomes. An example is how certain altruistic actions may appear beneficial, yet the adverse results negatively affect the team. A reference is avoiding performance management and trusting employees to be effective without additional measures can lead to lower performance rates and higher risks for organizational stagnancy. Altruistic decisions can also lead to adverse implications for the leaders in terms of burnout. Since the system is based on self-sacrifice for the greater good, the person in charge may lose a sense of self-preservation and a focus on personal goals. However, applying altruistic concepts during decision-making may create a positive environment for the workforce since each individual will have an understanding that they are valued, heard, and taken into consideration. This can result in higher efficiency and a smaller chance of losing valuable employees.

An explanation of a range of decision-making processes to identify potential solutions to a specific people practice issue.

The fishbone diagram assesses certain causes and the effects that actions imply on an organizational level. This method consists of brainstorming and creating a scheme with the main problem as initial discussion points. Moreover, employees are involved in scrutinizing an organizational outcome by assessing what caused it in the first place (Coccia, 2018). Such methods are used when the business is experiencing difficulties, and the main reason for applying this concept is to find the exact actions that led to such problems. Team members brainstorm ideas related to the most significant concern before looking for ways to mitigate risk factors and actions that negatively affect the organization. Any company would benefit from constructing a fishbone diagram since it is an excellent way of detailing and analyzing what causes adverse outcomes and how such notions can be mitigated in the future.

People practice issues requiring the involvement of team members in mitigating the problems. Action Learning Sets (ALS) are designed to create a collective force consisting of employees. According to researchers, ALSs facilitate change and improvement on organizational levels (Gillett et al., 2017). The idea is to create a workforce team that focuses on problem-solving decisions and actions toward combatting such implications. Creating ALSs is helpful for efficiently addressing people practice issues by creating a proactive environment and giving team members an opportunity to give insight and contribute to organizational decisions. Moreover, it is an excellent way of building professional relationships based on collective good and unity.

The six hats method facilitates collective effort and an in-depth approach to a decision since several points of view are taken into consideration. Researchers highlight that this strategy contributes to the team’s creative thinking and innovative ideas (Göçmen & Coşkun, 2019). The six hats represent multiple viewpoints that correspond to a color. Team members incorporate such points of view within their commentary and ideas, give feedback, and analyze the results. The six hats approach is used when a solution requires the examination of different possible actions and opinions. The use of this method contributes to the in-detail analysis of organizational issues, collective effort towards minimizing them, and practical solutions based on the overview of multiple different opinions. The six hats, similar to the fishbone strategy, amplifies brainstorming activities. Moreover, critical thinking increases the effectiveness of decisions made by the company.

A review of relevant evidence to identify key insights into a people practice issue & AC 2.4 – A rationale for my decision, based on evaluation of the benefits, risks, and financial implications of potential solutions.

Employee satisfaction is a primary concern within organizational settings. All aspects that team members consider a positive work environment highlight this concept’s significance. Some of the notions that fall under this category are how leaders treat team members and resolve conflicts. Leadership is an aspect that directly correlates with the organizational environment and approach to mitigating problems. Hence, it is an essential part of the job-satisfaction component, and based on the results, employees find the leadership approach to be negative (Table 1). The findings illustrate that employees tend to appreciate workplaces where leaders and corporate values take them into consideration. The results of the survey facilitate practical solutions that may improve organizational outcomes by addressing people’s practice issues through a higher job satisfaction rate.

As mentioned prior, the six hats is a method used to have different overviews on one problem. The decision-making method exemplifies the inclusion of team members in critical organizational strategies, which is at the core of job satisfaction. Corporate culture and values include how leaders and the organization itself treats the workforce. A business where team members can focus collective effort towards a critical issue creates an environment where each individual can have a voice and participate in the dialogue. When the six hats method is used, every participant can give an overview of the situation while basing the feedback on the color of the hat. It is an excellent way of giving team members a voice, building solid teams, and consolidating the effort of multiple individuals towards a single goal.

Based on the findings exemplified in the evidence, it is certain that employees are more satisfied and hence more effective if the organization where they operate has adequate values and proficient leadership. Focusing on improving low morale and creating an environment where team members can participate in decision-making processes can contribute to lowering the chances of low proficiency and engagement. The benefits include cooperation, high effectiveness, and a collective approach to organizational goals and objectives. However, a risk that can interfere with these interventions is a focus on the team as a unity rather than providing individual attention to each member. The benefits outweigh possible adverse implications, highlighting the importance of employee satisfaction reached through good organizational values and positive leadership approaches.

The financial implications are minimal since a change in leadership styles and decision-making approaches requires more moral and social effort than an economic one. Once organizational values and leaders have an agenda that considers the team as a significant component of the company, individuals tend to be motivated to contribute to multiple tasks. Some of the points include analyzing issues from different perspectives, mitigating risk factors, looking for practical solutions, and lowering the chance of similar issues occurring in the future.

An appraisal of different ways organizations measure financial and non-financial performance.

The basis for making management decisions about the company’s activities can also be information that is based on financial and non-financial indicators. Knowing the financial aspects of activity and efficiency, managers will learn about the current situation of the organization, its problems and will be able to assess possible prospects in the future. Non-financial parameters directly measure the results of the workshop participants ‘ activities. A competent analysis of these indicators makes it possible to correctly create a development strategy and improve the management mechanism.

Revenue Helps to make informed decisions
Horizontal and vertical profit analysis of financial results
Calculation of profitability indicators
ROI Most important indicator in assessing the economic feasibility
Does not consider the cost of money in different time periods
KPI Performance indicator that demonstrates how effectively a company achieves business goals
Objective assessment of the work and results
Motivates employees to achieve greater results
Balanced scorecard Tracks the achievement of goals of the company’s strategy
Emphasis on strategic goals
Small number of tracked metrics
Combination of financial and non-financial data

It is essential to compare financial approaches and to examine their properties. For instance, the key performance indicator (KPI) is a measurable value that demonstrates how effectively a company achieves key business goals. This method is used as a non-financial analysis of the organization and as an objective assessment of the work and its results. Moreover, it encourages employees to achieve the planned results. It is important to note that it is impractical to implement a KPI system in a young company.

The balanced scorecard is also one of the most effective ways of non-financial assessment, which allows tracking the achievement of goals as part of the implementation of the company’s strategy. The distinctive characteristics of this method include an emphasis on strategic goals, a small number of tracked metrics, and a combination of financial and non-financial data. The balanced scorecard system is aimed at involving employees and increasing their motivation and developing team interaction to achieve strategic goals. These two approaches are different, yet they are similar in the assessment of the goals and achievements of the company.

Data Analysis and Review

Data Analysis and Review

When analyzing the table of indicators of the attitude of employees concerning the line manager, a negative trend is observed. The table was created with the help of calculating averages, and it traced significant trends observed in employees’ attitudes. Therefore, the manager does not support the work of subordinates, sets tasks that are difficult for employees to accomplish. Moreover, the amount of training and development that employees received did not correspond to the achievements of the current and future required methods.

Data Analysis and Review

The table of customer feedback used the method of calculating averages as well. It also followed patterns and trends in customers’ behavior and attitudes. It is seen that customers were satisfied with the quality of goods and services provided. However, the management was poor, and customers did not receive responses in an appropriate period. Moreover, a significant number of customers cannot recommend the service to their relatives and friends.

The importance of these two analyses is vital; usage of average calculation helps identify strengths and weaknesses. For instance, employees are not satisfied with their manager’s actions and policies. Almost all aspects of disagreement are exceeded twice, proving that the manager’s work is insufficient. Moreover, the table of customer feedback reflects the issues of customer management. It is seen that people did not receive satisfactory answers in time; thus, they cannot recommend the company’s services.

Human resource management is the most complex object of the company’s activity. The reason is that all employees have their own interests and can be quite sensitive to managerial influences. Moreover, HR management is highly affected by different trends (Appendix 1). Pawar, J and Bhagat underline several recent tendencies such as “globalization, workforce diversity, corporate downsizing, contingent workforce, mass customization, technology, confidentiality” (p. 4464). The work of a line manager should be based on the recognition of the increasing importance of the employee’s personality, on the study of motivations and the ability to correctly build relationships with staff.

However, the quality of goods and services were acceptable and on offer was value for money was noted to be satisfactory with the customers. On the other hand, other aspects like customer service, professionalism in resolving conflicts and problems were had a significantly low rating. Moreover, other thing that was noted badly among people is the range of products and services that was not satisfactory to their requirements.

An effective method for personnel management and establishing relationships should have two main characteristics. First, it is a long-term plan, involving the development and change of installations, with the prospect of further development and improvement of the company’s work. The second characteristic is the connection of human practice with the overall strategy of the company and taking into account the factors of the external and internal environment. These factors can be provided by the dynamic growth approach of the organization. With it, the degree of risk is significantly reduced, the foundation for future development is laid, all decisions are made based on a comparison of goals and means. This method implies the distribution of personnel according to their flexibility, abilities, fair remuneration, evaluation of work according to clearly defined criteria and paying special attention to the development of the employee’s personality.

In addition to focusing on employees, the opinion of consumers is of the greatest importance. The entire policy and strategy of the company should be aimed at the client. This priority follows from the fact that the other objects of the organization’s activities are intermediaries and the impact on them is to strengthen the impact on the consumer. The opinion of consumers is an external factor that affects the work and competitiveness of the company.

Schedule management is a measurement that focuses on creating schedules for effective performance and employee engagement in organizations. This domain is helpful in assessing how employees follow organizational guidelines in regard to work hours. Moreover, since the data obtained through analyzing schedules shows engagement, it is an excellent way to recognize team members who put the most effort into the assigned tasks. It is effective for having an overview of how the team operates, yet possible mistakes such as missing clock-ins and clock-outs can compromise its effectiveness, which is a downside. Quantitative data is used, which is a reliable source of information that gives insight into the performance of different people, departments, or companies.

Performance management is a broad domain that focuses on topics that relate to assessing team members to help them reach their full potential within an organizational setting. Managers have to analyze the performance of each individual and implement strategies to maximize this measure. The benefits of this approach are having information on each individual’s proficiency and initial data on which domains are to be improved. However, some employees can become demotivated if the implementations followed by the assessment are too strict. Performance management uses quantitative (exact numbers) and qualitative (feedback, commentary) data, allowing for both subjective and objective points of view on a particular situation.

Employees feedback

This bar graph presents employees’ feedback on the manager. As seen, the findings show the overall dissatisfaction with the manager’s actions. After using the method of calculating averages, it was examined that more than half of workers are dissatisfied with quality of management and conflict resolution. The bar chart shows the average number of people who participated in the data collection. In general, there is no gratification from employees concerning the work of the manager.

Customer recomendation

The pie chart presents the customer recommendation of goods and services provided by the company. As seen from findings in 2.1, customers were satisfied with the quality of products of the company. Indeed, the quality of management is poor, and the responding time is long. As seen from this pie chart, less than a half of customers will recommend the company’s services. More than a half of people disagree to share the positive experience with their friends and comrades.

Customers’ feedback
Good quality of goods and services
Agreed 86,8
Disagreed 58,2

This is an excerpt from the table that explains the customer’s feedback on services provided by an organization. Even though most customers had a negative experience with the company’s management, the quality of products became a satisfactory issue for many people. The graph used the method of average calculating, and the results may be approximate. For instance, more than 86 of asked people claimed that the quality of goods and services provided was good.

One effective practice that can positively influence the workforce and, hence, the overall organization is people data analysis. Examining information in regards to performance and other measures can help assess the effectiveness of particulate employees and find a solution to improving this domain. Such implications lead to a more efficient achievement of organizational objectives, directly impacting external and internal environments (job satisfaction, consumer satisfaction, competitiveness, etc.).

Managing grievances is another effective measure that can improve corporate outcomes linked to high employee morale. This includes creating a system where team members can openly discuss their concerns and allow managers to investigate the situation before following up with adequate solutions. Grievance management effectively minimizes low job satisfaction and builds strong professional relationships based on trust and guidelines that each employee has to follow.

Based on the preliminary analysis, 43 employees exemplify low performances. The rest (245) ranked high on the performance scale and received a monthly £400.00 bonus. A reward system is an efficient way of improving internal competition among team members and reaching corporate results. An ROI calculation can be performed to assess the financial implications of such an implementation since it is used to examine and compare economic benefits that follow a systematic change (Kousky et al., 2019). The calculation will allow for the investment (£75,000) to be analyzed and determine whether it is a financial burden or a proactive way of mitigating low performance.

People data analysis can be measured through examining the cost-benefit analysis (CBA). After department A invests in new systems to operate people data, the benefits can be assessed by comparing current revenue measures and the prior ones. Since most customers think after-sales procedures have not been followed (118) and their calls were often left unattained (111), an in-depth people data analysis can provide an overview of the team members who do not follow the company’s guidelines. The data analysis should include the number of hours each team member spends on professional tasks, absences, early clock-outs, late clock-ins, and other measures that can compromise proficient work.

Evaluation and Assessment

Evidence-based practice seems to be a useful tool in the company’s management. It is based on the results of studies that have been confirmed in a practical way. However, not all scientific works are equally suitable for use in practice. When making a decision on the use of certain evidence, it is necessary to discuss how a particular decision was made and what evidence was used for this. This helps to improve the quality of judgments and reduce the likelihood of errors and risks. Moreover, the discussions will help to get a comprehensive assessment of the information and make an informed decision.

Critical thinking is one of the evidence- based approaches that is widely implemented. It implies an appeal to judgments to conduct an analysis in order to formulate reasonable conclusions, as well as their interpretation and application of the results obtained. Its main advantage is the arrival of a more balanced and effective solution for the company and its staff. The disadvantage of critical thinking is that it may not be an easy way for people who are used to following a certain pattern. This approach may be ineffective, because the secret of a talented manager’s success is not in following the scheme, but in the ability to find the right solution for each individual situation.

Under rational planning, it is considered to be the preparation of a specific action plan for the company’s work. It describes certain steps that will need to be taken in order to get closer to the main goal. The disadvantage of this method is time shifts in planning, which can lead to a decrease in the relevance of the development plans being developed. On the other hand, the focus on the cultivation of financial components is conditioned by adaptation to the current market situation, which reduces production flexibility and resistance to negative factors. Both approaches will help to make the most rational decisions not only for the effective operation of the business, but also for improving the field of personnel management.

Thus, several examples of problems that can be solved using these two approaches can be given. First, it may be the lack of systematization among the staff and the work they do. This can lead to chaos and incorrect execution of tasks and failure to achieve the set results. Taking into account the practice based on evidence-based information when solving people practice problems in modern society is of particular importance, since it allows you to implement a number of issues of individual adaptation. In addition, the personal factor is taken into account in the construction of the organization’s personnel management system. The practice based on evidence-based information can also be a solution to such problems as discipline among the employees of the organization and the turnover of working personnel. It will help bring problem-solving strategies to the organization that have a clear proof of work.


Coccia, M. (2018). The Fishbone diagram to identify, systematize and analyze the sources of general purpose technologies. Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 4(4), 291–303.

Gillett, K., Reed, L., & Bryan, L. (2017). Using action learning sets to support change in end-of-life care. Leadership in Health Services, 30(2), 184–193.

Göçmen, Ö., & Coşkun, H. (2019). The effects of the six thinking hats and speed on creativity in brainstorming. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 31, 284–295.

Khurram, A. (2020). Revisiting Porter Five Forces Model: Influence of non-governmental organizations on competitive rivalry in various economic sectors. Pakistan Social Sciences Review, 4(1), 1–15.

Kousky, C., Ritchie, L., Tierney, K., & Lingle, B. (2019). Return on investment analysis and its applicability to community disaster preparedness activities: Calculating costs and returns. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 41, 101296.

Lehane, E., Leahy-Warren, P., O’Riordan, C., Savage, E., Drennan, J., O’Tuathaigh, C.,… & Hegarty, J. (2019). Evidence-based practice education for healthcare professions: an expert view. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine, 24(3), 103-108.

Nørreklit, H., Kure, N., & Trenca, M. (2018). Balanced scorecard. The International Encyclopedia of Strategic Communication, 1–6.

Pawar, J., & Bhagat, M. (2021). Recent trends in human resource management. PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 18(08), 4464-4470.

Perrera, R. (2017). The Pestle analysis. Nerdynaut.

Appendix 1

Human Resource Management With Evidence-Based Practice

Find out your order's cost