The need for creation of methods for the management of organization in terms of material flow, information over large distances and the people rose as a need to counter the challenges that were faced by the management of organizations like factories and railways for example, that arose during and after the evolution of industries in the late eighteenth century. Taylor attempted by considering the organizational framework as comprising different parts each performing its functions and that could be joined together. Work was supposed to be divided into the least division and then teaching of the worker on each work that was supposed to be done.
In the Taylor’s model (Taylorism) there emerged new departments in the framework, formalized management, rational rules in place of trial and error, and the result was high efficiency and productivity. The duties of management were supposed to be commanding of the employees, organizing and planning, coordination of the activities and performance control. In this model, there was also specialization of activities. Specifying of the behavioral alternatives of the workers was expected to achieve reduced variability. There was opposition to this model, for example arising from old line managers who resisted to the idea of science as a management and not in-born. Taylorism also addressed the motivation of employees using the reward and punishment (Taylor, qtd in Walonick). Walonick views that Taylorism has not faired well with modern companies although it did well with simple companies. It has been blamed for continued decline in production and quality, being dissatisfied with work, deteriorated pride in workmanship and has almost lost organizational pride. Weber expanded the ideas of Taylor through a model that sought to reduce ambiguity and diversity in organizations. In the bureaucratic theory, power was to have a hierarchical structure and rules were put in place in this structure to ensure uniformity and stability. The revolution of the Weber’s model was through the establishment of the “federal decentralization” where the large organization would be decentralized into independent units to run their businesses independently (Drunker, 572; cited in Walonick).
Organizations are dealing with people as well as groups of them in order to accomplish their economic among other goals. Since the activities, duties or roles necessary to meet these goals may be interlinked and being accomplished by different people, better relations among these individuals is essential because it will determine the results of the whole process in terms of quality, quantity, and speed among other characteristics. Organizational behavior is the study and knowledge applied in establishing how individuals, people and groups in an organization relate to that organization as a means to improve such relationships in order to achieve human objectives while achieving the social and organizational objectives.
The current study seeks to look at the concepts and main ideas of organizational behavior. The study will look at the different theories brought forward on this matter, models, elements of organizational, action learning and change.
This draws primarily from sociology in studying the organizational system of an entity. Macro-organizational behavior deals with the culture, structure, coordination, and communication organization of the entity (Ulubay). The different parts of an organization should be interlinked and related in an established pattern-the structure (French, Kast, and Rosenzweig, 348; cited in Walonick). The leadership which is crucial to the success of an organization, communication within the set-up, and the group dynamics are determined by the culture of an organization which is driven by the set out values, goals, philosophy and organization’s objectives. The organizational culture influences and determines the leadership, communication of the organization, and is driven by the set out goals, visions, philosophy and values of an organization. The working environment which influences the quality of work and contribution of the employees in meeting the objectives and goals, is influenced and determined by the culture of the organization and the leadership. These comprise the elements of organizational behavior.
The study of micro-organizational behavior draws primarily on psychology to look at how organizations affect individuals and groups. It entails leadership, learning, and decision making, motivation and delegation among other aspects. Leaders are engaged in decision making every time to identify, select and evaluate opportunities. However, they are interacting with people from time to time in order to see that these decisions are implemented.
Models of organizational behavior
Although there are more than one model of organizational behavior, it may be hard for an organization to operate one type without mixing ideas from other models. The autocratic model of organizational behavior where authority and power is the focus of management activities, and the employees are expected to be obedient and dependent on the management, results in minimal performance. The management of the autocrat nature of this model can be described in the McGregor’s Theory X whereas the custodial, supportive and collegial drive from the Theory Y (Organizational behavior). Others are collegial, supportive and custodial models.
According to Schein (qtd.in Ulubay), isolation may result when individualization and socialization in an organization is too little, while highest levels of both are essential for the organization’s survival at an environment with very high competition. Conformity and rebellion would be the subsequent end results in an environment of too high socialization-too little individualization, and too little socialization-too high individualization respectively. The organization must aim at developing individuals even as a group to improve personal and group results. This includes making sure that the workers are in the life-long learning process to master the set of disciplines established in the firm (Senge, 131; qtd in Walonick)
Organizational development and change
In order that planned changes in an organization be effectively realized if the individuals, groups and their organizations are empowered through better quality of work-life, better adaptability, and if their full productivity and effectiveness are harnessed. Organizational development involves the change of organizational attitudes, procedures, behaviors and channels etc in order to adopt change. People should be made to allow changes where there is need like technological changes so as the organization will benefit.
Organizations deal with people to achieve their objectives and goals. The study of the behavior of the people, how they are affected by the working environment, the organizational structure and leadership among other things could lead to improved performance of an organization. Such analysis has been conducted from the times of industrial revolution to now in order to improve organizational behavior.
There has been no agreement on the theories or concepts that have been brought forward on organizational behavior. The application of these models may require an organization to interlink many models in order to increase the chances of better and positive results. There is need for advancement of studies on these theories as the business arena is highly dynamic.
Organizational development. 2009. Web.
Schein, E. Organizational Socialization and the Profession of Management. Industrial Management Review, (1968). Vol. 9. pp. 1-15 in Newstrom, J. & Davis, K. (1993). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work. New York: McGraw-Hill
Senge, P.. The art & practice of the learning organization. The New Paradigm in Business: Emerging Strategies for Leadership and Organizational Change (eds. Ray, M. and Rinzler, A.) (1993). The World Business Academy. (1990). p. 126-138. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher
Taylor, F. W. The Principles of Scientific Management. (1917). New York: Harper
Ulubay Gözde. Organizational Behaviors. 2009. Web.
Walonick David. Organizational Theory and Behavior. Web.
Wertheim Edward. Historical Background of Organizational Behavior. 2009. Web.
Weber, M. The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations. Henderson, A. M., and Parsons, T. (trans.) (1947). New York: Oxford University Press