Earth Formation from the Scope of the Scientists


The Solar System, and which includes our planet earth, was shaped from a very huge cloud and the cloud was rotating. The cloud consisted of interstellar gasses and dust which are collectively referred to as the solar nebula (Kotelnikov, 2010). It was composed of helium gas and hydrogen gas which was formed just after the Big Bang. In his reports (Kotelnikov, 2010) Most likely the shock wave resulted in the rotation of the nebula and causing it to gain momentum. According to (Danrod, 2005) on the formation of the solar system the following four points are considered.

It is said that huge bodies in the solar system have arranged motions. Another thing is that all the planets do rotate in the same direction (simmers, 2008).
Secondly, there are two main categories in which the planets belong. There are small and rocky terrestrial planets that lie near the sun and the large which are rich in hydrogen Jovian planets that lie further away from the sun.
Thirdly, asteroids and comets also make up the solar system. This is what is known as an asteroid belt (Simmers, 2008).
Lastly, there are several vital exceptions regarding these trends. There are some planets in the solar system which shows unusual tilts, (Johnsons, 2002).
Planets motion in their orbits.
Figure1. Planets motion in their orbits.
Shows asteroids that are in the asteroid belt located between Jupiter and Mars
Figure2. Shows asteroids that are in the asteroid belt located between Jupiter and Mars.
It Shows comets located in the Kuiper Belt which is just outside Pluto's orbit.
Figure3. It Shows comets located in the Kuiper Belt which is just outside Pluto’s orbit.

Solar Nebula Hypothesis

(Wells, 2005) states that are still on the same track let’s consider the important properties of the cloud.

  • Large and disperse, gradually rotating – the cloud had some angular momentum and this particular property of the cloud gives an account for the motion of the planets.
  • The composition of helium and hydrogen. But since some heavier materials like metals are found in the terrestrial planets then they probably were included. Specifically, this property is the one that dictated how the two main types of planets came to be (Johnsons, 2002).


In his book (Simmers, 2008) In his studies (Bontis, N. & Choo, W, 2003) from this is now one of the four challenges that can be accounted for. This challenge is about the orderly manner in which the planets’ orbit in the solar system.

The building of the planets

In his report (Foss,2005) when the nebula gets heat up at some stage in the collapse, the part which is the densest and the one which is the hottest part is placed at the centre.. Moving outwardly, the nebula becomes cooler so we can say that at diverse radii, the temperature sufficiently low allowing some materials to condense.

In his book (Robin, 2003) states that similarly, the whole process proceeded just like the collapse of the nebular that formed the solar system.

Still in his studies (Robin, 2003) continues to say that the asteroids and comets are said to be the planetessimals that are considered to be free or rather the unoccupied of all the Jovian planets and the terrestrial planets. The theory of the nebular envisages that their compositions ought to be quite dissimilar and without raising an eyebrow they are. Furthermore, the early days’ solar system may have been comprised of many planetessimals so as the explanation of the period of heavy what can be termed as the heavy bombardment in which collisions were extremely common these collisions which involved large bodies is manifested situations of our solar system where there is the Uranus tipping over and the Earth’s large moon forming.

Materials Radial Transport in Protoplanetary Disks

There is what is known as the radial transport and the mixing which for long have been considered to must have had a big hand in the process of shaping the solar system or more specifically the shaping the primordial materials in the nebula. Chondritic meteorites which are the remaining bits and pieces from the solar nebula, addition contains the materials that are shaped in different physical and chemical settings also were brought together to be closely mixed on many fine scales. These objects, on the other hand, were only the sample parent bodies that exist in the belt of the asteroids consequently the scale of the mixing which was considered was comparatively small.

More in recent times, Stardust mission has exposed that the obstinate grains in the Comet Wild do have an origin that is common with chondritic components. This would be a sign of radial transport which happened over very long distances thus allowing the grains which formed in the inner part of the solar nebula to be carried outwards to the regions where there was the formation of the comets. In his studies (Johnsons, 2002). The astronomical observations of the disks that are around the young stars suggest that such mixing may be a basic outcome of the evolution of the protoplanetary disk as the materials which are of high-temperature for instance the crystalline silicates which are experiential at eminent abundances in the outer regions located around the young stars and which are cool.

In his research (Johnsons, 2002) says that the current theories do suggest that the formation of the planets in the solar system is said to be an ordinary and a natural process that took place also having a relationship with the formation of stars. It can be said that our very own Solar System which is the Earth was created by these processes I have discussed above and I can put it that the Earth went through a quite unstable period whilst it was still a very young object. It clearly shows that Earth’s only natural satellite, which is the moon, must have been shaped by an impact of very high magnitude about 4.5 billion years ago (Wells, 1940). The collision was between the young Earth and a planet having almost the same size as the planet Mars.

In his book (Robin, 2003) states The Earth’s collision partner which is known as Theia, is considered to have been let’s say a little smaller in size than the size of planet Mars currently. Planet mars may be formed by the matter accretion which according to (Wells, 1940) occurred approximately a distance of 150 million kilometres away from the position of the Sun and our planet Earth. Theia swung in bigger and bigger orbits at the Lagrangian point until it lastly it had a collision with planet Earth about 4.533 Ga. These are the materials that would at the end form what is known to us as the Moon. (Kotelnikov, 2010) observed that the ejector which is located in the orbit just around our planet Earth could eventually have condensed thus forming a single body all this happened in a period just within a couple of weeks. Eventually, the material that was ejected finally formed into a body that had a more spherical shape and this was as a result of its force of gravity and this is what is known as the Moon (Kotelnikov, 2010).

Instantaneously following the collision was the vigorous convecting of the mantle of the planet Earth. The other consequence of the impact is contemplated to have distorted axis of the planet Earth thus producing the big 23.5° tilt of the axis. This may also have had a hand in the speeding up of the rotation of the planet Earth.


After the condensation of planetessimals and the formation of planet seeds, what followed after that was the development of Jovian planets and this was through the capture of the nebular nebula and then the formation of terrestrial planets. Finally, the solar wind blew away the gasses that were remaining: the solar wind was from the young sun. This is how the solar system was formed. Many scientists and scholars have proposed various theories on how the world was formed and this has conflicted with religious concepts and explanations. Many religious leaders have gone against the explanations fronted by scientists and have come up with their theories. The evolution of the earth will always remain in contention. It is hence the work of scientists to come up with better technology that will aid them in confirming and eliminating bogus theories. The main aim of this study was to highlight the evolution of the earth from the scope of scientists. The paper does not highlight other theories as every individual has their own beliefs on the way the earth was formed.

List of References

Bontis, N. & Choo, W. (2002) Life on earth: the story of evolution. New York: Oxford university press.

Danrod, J. (2005) Astronomy: Solar Theories. New York: Norton & Company Inc.

Foss, K. (2005) Life on a Young Planet: The First Three Billion Years of Evolution on Earth. New York: P.K. Foss.

Johnsons, B. (2002) Origin and Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University.

Kotelnikov, V. (2010) Origin and evolution of Earth: research questions for a changing planet. Perth, Ocean View Publishers.

Simmers, C. (2008) The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution. London: Sharpe.

Robin, C. (2004) Earth: A synopsis of Beginning. New York: CRC Press.

Wells, H. (1940) solar system Genesis. New York: Springer.

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