Diabetes: What You Need to Know About Insulin Management


The contents of this material present propitious information on the hormone insulin in relation to this pernicious condition. It is also useful to patients seeking to be enlightened on the management or prevention strategies of the ailment. Patients most affected by diabetes are the aged, therefore the material targets persons aged 45 years and above. However, the chronic nature of the disease does not sideline it from persons below this age. (Kitabchi, Umpierrez, Miles & Fisher, 2009) The major target group may have frequent access to health facilities thus prompting an effective physical distribution of this pamphlet by health care professionals. Besides this modality, important information contained in it can also be disseminated through websites or electronic media.

What is diabetes?

When the amount of sugars or glucose in the blood is above normal, the condition is referred to as diabetes. An individual experiencing this condition is definitely incapable of readily converting food to energy. (Baker, 2008). In the pancreas, a hormone known as insulin is produced in order to aid blood cells to convert blood glucose into energy. The glucose emanates from the breakdown of food after a meal and is transported throughout the body in the blood. Fluctuation in the production of this hormone increases glucose in the blood leading to a diabetic condition. (Frye, 2009)

The common diabetes types

Diabetes generally has three major types including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Basically, these three have the same characteristics. (Baker, 2008).

Insulin and diabetes

Insulin as earlier mentioned is secreted from the organ pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is common in childhood when the pancreas ceases to produce insulin. Injuries or disorders to the pancreas impair the ability to produce insulin. This deficiency could also be a result of infections and illnesses associated with the pancreas. (American Diabetes Asociation.2008)

Type 2 diabetes is a deleterious type of diabetes elicited by the inability of the cells of the liver, mucous, and fat to utilize the insulin hormone. This condition is termed insulin resistance. (Fisher, Thorpe, Devellis, & Devellis, 2007)This diabetes is common in adulthood, however, according to the American Diabetes Association, the condition is increasingly rampant among obese American teenagers. The insulin receptors involved are more concerned with the body tissues that have a defective response.

For patients experiencing gestational diabetes mellitus is a prerequisite of type 2 diabetes is due to irresponsive and inefficient production of insulin. It is common in about 2-5% of pregnancies in the United States of America. It is capable of disappearing and can be treated by medication. At the point of depletion of insulin sensitivity the condition becomes hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemic condition can be reverted by different measures through medication and administration of insulin to thrive its sensitivity. (American Diabetes Asociation.2008).

Insulin medication cannot be taken through oral administration but can be administered through subcutaneous injected via an insulin pump. The doses of insulin may be calculated by use of insulin calculators depending on the ingested carbohydrates and the blood glucose. A formula for this purpose has been coined as follows; (Nathan, Kuenen, Borg, Zheng, Schoenfeld, Heine, 2008).

Some common clinical insulin types for you diabetes management

  • A blend of Ultralente (70%) and Semilente (30%) is effective in diabetics for a period of 24 hours.
  • Long acting insulin types that commence their action after 4 to 6 hours and may last for a period of 32 hours. E.g. ultralente insulin.
  • Short-lasting insulin types which act after half an hour and lasts for 6 to 8 hours. E.g. the regular insulin.
  • Rapid-acting insulin analogues like lispro. They initiate their action after about 15 minutes lasting for only 3 to 4 hours. Etc (Nathan et al, 2008)

One may also choose to take proactive measures that will help in managing or preventing diabetes menace to certain manageable levels. (Frye, 2009) For instance:

  • one should have a daily intake of balanced diet
  • Avoiding lazy behavior and frequently exercising to eradicate chances of being overweight or being obese.
  • Individuals should be able to manage their blood pressures especially through wise choice of food and subsequently visiting a physician for more professional pieces of advice. (McCulloch, 2011)


As aforementioned, diabetes is an insidiously chronic condition affecting a significant population both locally and globally. Its prevalence among the stated target ages calls for more reinforcement in the bid for creating awareness among this group. All governments as well as nonprofit organization have to step up to the challenge and take the necessary intervention to save the situation. It is rather demeaning, to realize that the disease targets the most productive population of the world. An occasional screening of diabetes among the vulnerable target group should be encouraged at all cost. (Fisher et al, 2007)


Agarwal,M.M., Dhatt, G.S., Punnose, J., Zayed, R. (2007). Gestational Diabetes: Fasting and Postprandial Glucose as First Prenatal Screening Tests in a High-Risk Population. J Reprod Med, 52(4), 299-305.

American Diabetes Asociation. (2008). Medical Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Alexandria, VA, American Diabetes Association.

Baker, W.L. (2008). Effect of cinnamon on glucose control and lipid parameters. Diabetes Care, 31, 41.

Fisher, E.B., Thorpe, C.T., Devellis, B.M., & Devellis, R.F, (2007). Healthy coping, negative emotions, and diabetes management: a systematic review and appraisal. Diabetes Educ, 33, 1080–1103.

Frye, R.L. (2009). A Randomized Trial of Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 2503.

Kitabchi, A.E., Umpierrez, G.E., Miles, J.M., & Fisher, J.N, (2009). Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care,32, 1335–1343.

McCulloch, D.K. (2011). Initial management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Web.

Nathan, D.M., Kuenen, J., Borg, R., Zheng, H., Schoenfeld, D., & Heine, R.J., (2008). Derived Average Glucose Study Group. Translating the A1C Assay Into Estimated Average Glucose Values. Diabetes Care, 31, 1473–1478.

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