Diabetes Type 2: Key Information


Over the past decade, diabetes has become one of the major health concerns despite the efforts to mitigate the disease of healthcare organizations. Globally, diabetes was registered among 8.5% of adults in 2014, causing around 1,500,000 deaths in 2016 (National Institute of Health, 2021). Moreover, between 2000-2016, a 5% increase in diabetes-related mortality rates was observed (National Institute of Health, 2021). Therefore, there are strong indications that diabetes remains one of the major priorities for health experts globally. Due to the increasing nurse-patient ratio, as well as the necessity to encourage patient independence, the importance of a self-management intervention must be emphasized as the main tool in improving patient outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms and Signs

When promoting patient education and greater awareness about the issue of diabetes, nurses should ensure that patients should set particularly strong cognition about the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes. By recognizing the emerging health issue early, patients can seek the support of healthcare experts and ensure that their ends are fully met. Specifically, patients must be made aware of the following signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes: excessive thirst and urination frequency, changes in weight, particularly weight loss, and noticeable fatigue (Greenwood et al., 2017). In addition, symptoms such as reduced sight and increased rate of infections, as well as sensations such as numbness or tingling in one’s hands or feet, should be seen as an early sign of diabetes (Greenwood et al., 2017). By identifying the described issues early and addressing healthcare experts promptly, one can prevent the aggravation of one’s health rate.

Diabetes and Patient-Specific Characteristics (Age, Sex)

It is also worth noting that diabetes manifests itself in different ways depending on specific patient characteristics. Namely, specific groups may be exposed to the threat of type 2 diabetes to a greater extent than others. For instance, studies have found that age remains a factor of major importance in assessing the risk of type 2 diabetes development (Pamungkas et al., 2017). Specifically, aging people (45 and up) have been found to be more susceptible to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus than younger groups (Gu et al., 2017).

Another vital characteristic to be considered is the patient’s sex. Namely, men have been proven to be more susceptible to diabetes than women (Greenwood et al., 2017). The observed difference can be attributed to variations in hormone levels (Pamungkas et al., 2017). However, while men are more prone to developing diabetes, women show significantly higher risks of further complications and health management issues (Pamungkas et al., 2017).

Diabetes: Risk Factors

Apart from inherent risk factors, there are also behaviors and lifestyles that are highly likely to contribute to the development of diabetes. Among these, one must single out failure to maintain proper dieting and the resulting health complications. Particularly, patients suffering from obesity are more prone to developing type 2 diabetes than those whose weight does not affect their health negatively (Greenwood et al., 2017). Furthermore, studies have shown that diabetes affects people with high blood pressure levels, as well as those that have a history of CVD or stroke, to a significantly greater extent than the rest of the population (Gu et al., 2017). Therefore, the specified risk group should be particularly weary of the early signs and symptoms of diabetes.

Intervention: Description. Key Focus

Since predicting the development of diabetes is presently impossible, and since the disease remains incurable, reinforcing the framework for building awareness and preventing instances of diabetes among risk groups should be seen as a priority for healthcare experts. For this reason, an intervention geared toward active patient education and promoting patient literacy on diabetes is required. Specifically, patients will be provided with essential information concerning the nature of the problem, the risk factors, and the means of contacting healthcare experts in case of a threat or complication. Information about the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test will have to be provided as the main diagnostic tool (Gu et al., 2017). Moreover, treatment options and methods for maintaining proper health levels, particularly insulin therapy, healthy dieting, and physical exercises, will have to be offered to patients that have already been diagnosed (Pamungkas et al., 2017).

Intervention: Diabetes and Lifestyle Changes

The significance of monitoring blood sugar levels and the tools for performing the specified objects must be deemed the program’s primary focus. Specifically, patients will have to be instructed about the means of minimizing the risk of an unexpected and rapid change in blood glucose levels by using a blood glucose monitor as one of the primary devices for addressing the disease (Gupta et al., 2020). In addition, in order to administer the necessary amount of insulin to their body, a patient will need to use either n insulin pen, a syringe, an insulin pump, or a jet injector as one of the main methods of introducing insulin to the patient’s body (Pamungkas et al., 2017).

Intervention: Self-Care Strategies. Weight Management

In addition to ensuring that the levels of blood glucose remain the same throughout one’s entire life, people with diabetes also need to control their weight changes. Since insulin rates alter particularly drastically and unpredictably in people with weight management issues, adopting a healthy lifestyle and minimizing the extent of unhealthy food consumption is highly recommended as the first steps toward managing the effects of diabetes mellitus type 2. Moreover, the introduction of improved weight management will allow reducing the threat of comorbid issue development in the target population. Particularly, the threat of cardiovascular diseases, including increased blood pressure, will be safely avoided.

Intervention: Self-Care Strategies. Dieting Choices

Overall, the current focus of patient education when comes to the changes in how the patient and the people supporting them are viewed. Specifically, the increased focus on patient-specific issues in promoting increased health literacy and increasing the emphasis on preventing diabetes should be interpreted as the principal strategy to follow. Namely, by incorporating the strategies that imply the absence of unhealthy lifestyle choices, people are introduced to the idea that a positive lifestyle s linked to the levels of sugar in a patient’s blood.

Intervention: Self-Care Strategies. Physical Exercises

The adoption of physical exercises as the means of shaping the patient’s lifestyle and promoting a healthier approach toward managing diabetes should also be regarded as a vital part of the overall plan. Specifically, nurses will have to use innovative IT and ICT tools to encourage patient education through nurse-patient cooperation to promote physical exercises. The use of physical exercises as the means of containing the threat of diabetes mellitus type 2 should be seen as a vital step in protecting patients against aggravated conditions. Therefore, healthcare experts should consider suggesting patients exercises associated with swimming, as well as exercises that involve cycling or walking (Gupta et al., 2020). Thus, parents’ well-being will rise due to the consistent increase in the levels of awareness toward the issue of external factors.

Intervention: Self-Care Strategies. Information and Resources

By incorporating a health management strategy based strongly and persistently on the idea of patient communication and nurse-patient collaboration, developing a tool for reducing the risks and creating an environment for better performance can be created. The specified approach has been interpreted as an effective method of encouraging patent education and, therefore, the solution that can be deemed as a viable tool for building tie basis for proper disease prevention.


Greenwood, D. A., Gee, P. M., Fatkin, K. J., & Peeples, M. (2017). A systematic review of reviews evaluating technology-enabled diabetes self-management education and support. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 11(5), 1015-1027. Web.

Gu, L., Wu, S., Zhao, S., Zhou, H., Zhang, S., Gao, M.,… & Tian, D. (2017). Association of social support and medication adherence in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(12), 1522. Web.

Gupta, R., Hussain, A., & Misra, A. (2020). Diabetes and COVID-19: Evidence, current status and unanswered research questions. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74(6), 864-870. Web.

National Institute of Health. (2021). Risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Web.

Pamungkas, R. A., Chamroonsawasdi, K., & Vatanasomboon, P. (2017). A systematic review: Family support integrated with diabetes self-management among uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus patients. Behavioral Sciences, 7(3), 62. Web.

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