Ancient Rome: History and Culture


Western civilization is traced back from the ancient near and Middle East region. One of the major States that contributed enormously to the western civilization was the ancient Rome. The ancient historic Rome is believed to have been founded early back at around 750 BC. Rome mythically got its name from some two twin brothers; Romulus and Remus. Historical findings state that, Rome had seven kings who reigned for over two hundred years, in succession, Romulus as the first known king.

The ascend of Rome was surely not predictable, but it had several advantages exactly from the beginning due to the surrounding seas that were viable for overseas trades. It is known that the early inhabitants were just ordinary people who kept sheep, goats, pigs and cattle and also lived in prehistoric encircling huts. Indeed no one could have seen any possibility of Rome from such a nasty start to the world supremacy domicile. The Roman first tribes were three. The Tizienzi, Luceri and the Ramnensi (Romans).The other inhabitants were aliens who had to work as slaves and are said had no civic rights. There are three main eras that Ancient Rome is divided into; Kings Era, The Republic Era and the Empire Era. (Walter S, 2000).

The first administrative system was set that the leader of the state was the King. Passing of laws was done by the people who had citizenship. The Kings were selected by the Senate panel after passing several elimination processes like voting in the United States today.

All the powers were vested on the Kings who had authority to instruct the army and were also the head of religion, while the Senators were to advice the head of state.

The administrative structure resembles most of other western nations to date. From voting system to the appointment of envoys, the instruction to the army and senators down to the common man has great similarities in many modern nations.

Social life and Marriage

In the Roman society there was a division of two classes in social status; these were the patricians who were from families that originally were rich powerful property and land owners. They had powers in the political arena, and had a place in decision makings. The second groups were the plebians who generally worked in farms. The two groups were relatively separated; for the superior class only associated with their likes in both business and marriage, while the lower class could only be near when doing servant’s duties. The patricians married and did business only with the people of their class.

In Rome different classes of people were identified by the cord of clothing especially where dark tunic was being worn by the ordinary man who happened to be slaves or shepherds. White wool or linen was worn by intellectuals.The type of foot ware was also a distinctive factor where Patricians were using orange or red shoes that were inform of sandals. Romans had their food taken just before noon and contained cold meat, nuts, cheese, olive, salads, and fruits; wine was also given served. Most of the family members ate collectively. Their women and children ate independently, but soon after the territory period, with liberalism entering in; still reputable women would be present at such feast parties.

Familia in Roman language meant a group or collection of people and belongings that are underneath the parental power of the father; which narrowed down to the possessions, land, items, slaves and any other person who were below him. The Ancient Romans had very unique methods when one needed to marry.They saw this as rather financial and political coalition, and an added economic advantage. Romance was not valued generally. There were some more refined preparations that were made; fathers actually were seen searching correct partners for their daughters, at the start of teenage. The male partners were indeed older than the female by even twice. The feminine were expected to accept whatever choice she was given. Marriage also differed by classes.The inferior classes were marrying much later than the superior class. The Roman law stated clearly that when two couples shared a home, they were presumed legally married. Men were the main dominant gender in this marriage business and were the power brokers (Arnold et al, 2003).

Education and Language

The language which was widely spoken in Rome and the neighboring regions was Latin. This language historian says that, indeed was not the indigenous language in Italy but found its way in this peninsula by immigrants from the north. In the 18thcentury this was the most powerful language in history that diplomats and even intellectuals associated with; not forgetting that this was the main dialect that the liturgy of the Roman Catholic valued as sacred and used for its religious conquests all over the world. Education as we recognize these days has profound ancestry in the antique Roman Empire. In the duration of few centuries, Rome went from an informal structure of education that passed information from parents to kids to a particular, more polished system of schools inspired by Greek educational practices. Roman academic pursue made great and lasting assistance to the field of schooling as we know it. A child’s principal educators were likely to be his or her own parents.

Parents taught their children the skills necessary for living in the early social equality, most significant, nevertheless, were the ethical and civil educated The educational system of the Roman Empire was superbly planned and the sequence being followed to date was their marvelous invention. I t has been established that Roman students who wanted to pursue further education especially philosophy proceeded to Greece; since that nation was another power house of ancient to modern technologies. Development to another stage of education depended further on capability than maturity with great importance being sited upon a scholar’s in born capabilities, and even the availability of resources to meet the expense of advanced learning. We should recognize important contrasts to formal education as we know it today, in the modern world; a student generally pursues higher levels of education to gain the skills and certifications necessary to work in a more prestigious field. In contrast, only the Roman elite would expect a complete formal education. A tradesman or farmer would expect to pick up most of his professional skills on the job. Advanced education in Rome was more of a status symbol than a practical concern.

Christianity and Architecture

The Roman structural design was said to have been originated from the Greeks, but was brilliantly customized and had unique features. They also borrowed vast possessions experience from their neighbors; the Etruscans who were believed to have provided them by along time architectural scientific ideas that can be seen on hydraulics for the construction of their famous domes and arches. Inhabitants’ growth triggered the Roman architects to find more building methods that were to accommodate the more demanding economy. The opinionated condition at that time required that the anticipated constructions were to be compliant and had to serve full communal duties.

The Romans known main building achievements that have impacted current world, was the dome and arch construction. In almost every part of the world where Christianity as the agent of Roman influence several churches and Temples resembling the Roman ancient designs are seen. Light houses were built near the sea shores of the Mediterranean and in areas that were under its jurisdiction; some are still standing to date. The construction breakthrough is traced back in the first century when concrete was invented ;history revealed that indeed concrete had been in use on a small level in the region covering Mesopotamia and was later perfected by the Roman intellectuals (Robin ,1976).The most prominent Roman trace is religion. The ancient Roman religion was said to have included several practices of beliefs and rituals that were seen to be cultic. The cult practices are said to have stretched throughout Italy and to the entire Roman Empire. It is thought that the traditional animistic countless spirits were involved for specific duties in the society.

Christianity came to take over the original cultic practice and gave a bigger transformation; that those various aspects of its chain of command remain embedded in the Christian customs and to the western civilization. Indeed the evolution of Roman religion took many turns; Christianity did not shun totally the other cult practices, but also made several steps to spread over to Europe in the third century. There were numerous persecutions but it gained momentum and had massive converts, until it become supported formally and was the only allowed practice during the reign of Constantine I. Christianity later got a boost when cultic was banned by Theodosius I. The Roman Christian faith played a very vital role even to the colonization of Africa. It is has huge world wide influence that still reigns to the current day. Intellectual trends also helped Christianity to take another dimension.

The educated Romans made distinction between religion, cult and philosophy; that eventually convicted many to drop the original practices to take Christianity. Greek philosophy was also a major factor that pivoted the spread of Christianity. In summary, Roman influence in the modern world is enormous. From governmental structures to the rule of law, language, architecture, religion, Inventions and economic activities and many more ideologies are based up on the foundation of this ancient civilized society.

When one takes for example current government system the United States of America has; there is a very great similarity in comparison to the Ancient Rome. The Christians, especially the Roman Catholic has never deviated from the traditional church practices that were used before. Latin language any way is almost extinct but; still in use in the Vatican and other Basilicas.

Works cited

Arnold A. Lelis, William A. Percy, Beert C. Verstraete. The Age of Marriage in Ancient Rome: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2003.

Robin Barrow, Greek and Roman Education: Macmillan Education: London, 1976.

Walter Scheidel (ed.) Debating Roman Demography :Brill Academic Publishers, 2000.

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